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News: Guest Posts
Smiling Dog: Henry

Dog's name and age: Henry, 4 years

Adoption Story:

Several months after losing their Golden Retriever, Daisy, the family decided it was time to add another dog to their life. They were torn between getting a rescue dog or getting a Goldendoodle puppy. During a chance visit, they found a two year old Goldendoodle, Henry, available for adoption while on a trip. Of course, they fell in love with his adorable face and decided it was meant to be: a Goldendoodle who also needed a new home!

Henry's Interests:

"Henry Dancing Bear" loves going out on morning walks, playing hide-and-seek, and meeting new people. Although he's not too good with other dogs (they scare him), he loves to surround himself with people because he loves the attention.

Dog's Life: Lifestyle
For Every Dog There is a Season
And a time for every purpose under heaven

It’s fun to watch dogs enjoy snow, especially the first one of the season. Some dogs truly come alive in winter weather, and are never more joyful than when they are plowing nose first through the drifts and leaping around in snow that is up to their shoulders or even higher. For dogs who love it, snow brings out their most playful tendencies.

Other dogs clearly love the springtime when the weather begins to warm up and they no longer have to decide between the misery of heading outside to pee and the misery of continuing to cross their little legs. There are plenty of dogs who do not enjoy cold weather, even if they do have a lovely coat, but especially if that coat is quite short. These dogs could all be named Crocus or Daffodil, because they perk up and become cheerful when the snow melts and the ground thaws.

Summer dogs are often swimmers and if hot weather allows them access to lakes and streams, that could explain why they are so happy in the heat. Other dogs who love the year’s warmest weather may simply enjoy basking in the sun and taking it easy—like the proverbial hound dog on a southern porch, though they need not be either hounds or southern.

Fall dogs become more energetic when the summer heat fades away. These dogs draw energy from the crisp, cool air and many of them consider piles of leaves the best toy in the world. It’s a pleasure to watch a dog dive into what humans have raked together and come shooting out the other side. I’m sure if they could shout out, “Wheeeeee!” they would do so as they frolic in this way.

Not all dogs have a favorite season. Does yours?

Good Dog: Studies & Research
Frequency of Urination Related to Dog Body Size
Little dogs pee more often on walks

Scent marking is a common form of communication across a wide range of mammals. Although dogs can scent mark in various ways, they most often use urine, which is obvious to anyone who has watched dogs pee here, there and everywhere out on walks or during play time.

Urination, and other forms of scent marking, allow animals to convey a large amount of information in an indirect manner. That means that they can communicate without direct interactions. That has the advantage of avoiding the costs of social interactions, which can include stress, the energetic costs of interacting and potential injury. In many species, body size is closely correlated with competitive ability, which is why scent marking may be especially important to smaller individuals, who may be unlikely to fare well in direct encounters.

Dogs have an enormous size range for a single species, but only recently has the effect of size on frequency of scent marking been investigated. Researchers wondered whether smaller dogs take advantage of the indirect nature of scent marking through urine to be more competitive with larger dogs.

In the recent study, “Scent marking in shelter dogs: Effects of body size”, researchers walked 281 shelter dogs (mostly mixed breeds) that they categorized by size. Small dogs measured 33 cm or less at the withers, large dogs measured 50 cm or more, and medium dogs were above 33 cm but less than 50 cm. They recorded urinations during the first 20 minutes of each walk, noting whether they were directed at a target or not. (Targeted urinations were those that occurred after sniffing a spot on the ground or on some other surface, and those that involved urinating somewhere other than the ground even without sniffing it first.) The study found that smaller dogs marked more often than medium or large dogs and that they were more likely to direct their urine at targets compared to large dogs. Though smaller bladder capacities of smaller dogs could explain increased frequency of urination, that cannot account for the increased frequency of urinating on targets.

As expected, males also marked more frequently and directed their urine at targets more often than female dogs did. The length of time that dogs had spent in the shelter was positively associated with frequency of directed urinations, but not with total number of urinations. Size had no effect on the frequency of defecations on walks, but dogs who had been at the shelter longer were a little bit more likely to defecate on walks.

The authors concluded that smaller dogs use scent marking in the form of urination more frequently that medium or large dogs. It is possible that they are using scent marks in order to avoid direct interactions.

Good Dog: Activities & Sports
Getting Ready for the Warm Weather
Tips for preparing your pup for summer activities.
On the first warm day post-winter, I took my older dog, Nemo, on a walk up a local bike path. After months of inactivity indoors, walking three miles was a bit ambitious and Nemo slowed down considerably towards the end of our outing. In my eagerness to make the most of our first break from the cold, I didn't listen to my own advice on easing our pets into an active lifestyle. Now that spring is finally here, it's important to get your pets ready for the adventures that come with warmer weather, whether that be a long walk, a hike up a mountain, or playing fetch outside. Here are a few things to consider as you prepare your dogs.

Activity Level

This may seem like an obvious one, but sometimes we need a reminder to work our dogs up to more intense activities! Start with a shorter walk and gradually do longer distances and difficulties. For a hike this will mean researching the elevation and terrain for challenges like rock scrambling.  

As you're increasing the activity level, make sure you observe your dog to make sure they're comfortable. Even if the temperature doesn't feel too hot, dogs don't perspire or cool down as efficiently as we do. Be aware of the signs of overhearing, which includes heavy and rapid panting, a bright red tongue, thick drooling and saliva, lack of coordination, disorientation, or collapse. Dogs exhibiting these symptoms must be cooled down (you can use a hose or a even a stream, if you're out hiking) immediately taken to a veterinarian. Read this article for more information on canine heat stroke.

Another consideration as you walk around the neighborhood is to be mindful of hot pavement on your pup's paws. When it's warm outside, feel the sidewalk or street with your hand and watch for limping.

Training

As you participate in more outdoor activities, it's important to dust off your dog's recall skills and leash manners. If your pup will be off leash, you need to be confident that they'll come back when called, especially in front of wildlife. If you're keeping your dog on leash, learning not to pull on their leash is an essential skill for safety. When hiking there are many times when pulling can throw you off balance in dangerous areas, such as on steep descents and narrow ledges. Practicing these skills before you head out will make your trips more enjoyable and safe. More on trail etiquette here.

Grooming

There is also some grooming maintenance that will help prevent potential problems. Remember to keep your dog's nails short to avoid snagging or breaking and to trim fur around their paws. If you have a dog with long hair, they may need fur pulled away from their face with a hair tie or clip so it doesn't impede their vision. They may also benefit from clipped fur for the summer heat. However, it's important to never shave your dog completely as this will remove their sunburn protection and temperature regulation abilities. 
Enjoy the warm weather and stay safe!
News: Guest Posts
Maja and Her Great Dane, Rosie
Both have prosthetic legs

They lost their legs under very different circumstances, but the shared experience brought them together. Maja Kazazic suffered serious injuries as a teenager when a bomb exploded near her, killing five friends in her home country of Bosnia during the war. Rosie lost her leg when her dog mom accidently stepped on her, causing an injury that became infected and required her leg to be amputated. The breeder originally planned to euthanize her, but Maja rescued her, just as a stranger once rescued Maja.

When Maja met Rosie, she knew she was the perfect dog for her, and they bonded quickly. Maja says she knew right away that they were a good match, thinking “This is my dog. I don’t know what this dog is, but any dog who wears a prosthetic is my dog.” Maja is adept at helping attach Rosie’s prosthetic leg each morning, as she has done for herself for many years. Both of those legs were made by the Hanger Clinic, which is the company that made the tail for Winter the dolphin (best known from the movie Dolphin Tale). That company received a call from a veterinarian who wanted to know if they could help Rosie by making a leg for her, to which they replied, “Absolutely!” The Hanger Clinic also contacted Maja and told her that they had a dog who would be perfect for her, in part because Maja had always wanted a Great Dane.

There is a lot more to Maja and Rosie’s relationship, though, than lost legs. They are happy together, and both love to be active, whether that involves running, agility, golf or being in the water. Maja is now a trained service dog and Maja is a motivational speaker.

Good Dog: Behavior & Training
Eugene, Ore. Bans All Dogs Downtown.
The city is starting a six month pilot to try and reduce attacks.
Many communities struggle with issues like breed specific legislation as they try to navigate dog bites and potential lawsuits. How they deal with these challenges can be frustrating for dog lovers because it often results in a knee jerk reaction, like cities that ban bully breeds or apartments that turn away dogs over a certain weight. None of these restrictions get at the root cause of the problem they're trying to solve. I feel strongly that education around training and socialization is the key, not a blanket ban.

Eugene, Oregon has taken a particularly aggressive approach. After several dog attacks, the city made the decision to ban dogs in the twelve block downtown area for the next six months. This pilot program excludes police dogs, dogs whose owners live or work in the area, and trained service dogs.

The ban came into effect this week and starts with a $100 base citation, which a judge can increase to $250 in court. For the first few weeks, violators will get by with a warning.

Eugene certainly has a problem, residents have been complaining about aggressive dogs and one woman's dog was even killed in one of the attacks. But not everyone agrees that this is the right solution.

Isaiah Boise, who works downtown, says there are many challenges in Eugene but thinks the city could come up with a better approach. "It seems like we need better job training skills, more services and less policing, maybe a cross between the both," Isaiah said. "Maybe more community outreach as opposed to just bans and enforcement."

Imagine if Eugene chose to permit dogs based on good behavior versus banning on bad behavior. They could allow pups that passed a certain level of basic training, whether it be completing a manners class at a local dog training club or passing the AKC's Canine Good Citizen test. Not only would it improve the behavior of visiting dogs, but it would create greater awareness around training and developing a bond with your pup.

It's also fundamentally wrong to discriminate.

Councilor Emily Semple voted against the ban, citing that "we don't ban a whole class (of people) just because something bad happens." She also believes that it is unfair for homeless people who live in the area and rely on their dogs for companionship and protection.

Eugene's ban will expire in November, but can be extended if the city council thinks it's making the area safer. Hopefully they'll consider an alternative solution.

What would you propose Eugene do to make their downtown area safe for people and dogs?

News: Guest Posts
Smiling Dog: Romero

Dog's name and age: Romero, 2 years

Adoption Story:

Struck with grief because of the passing of their beloved 15 year old dog, Roo, Romero's person visited shelters looking at dogs in need of a home. Stumbling upon Romero in a visit to her local shelter, she knew he'd be the best to help fill the gap in both her and her dog's aching hearts.

She hesitated and did not take him home with her that day because she was still grieving the loss of Roo but she could not stop thinking of Romero so she went back to the shelter to get him. Although she was afraid he would have been adopted by someone else, when she returned and saw him she knew she couldn't leave him again.

Funny Tidbits:

Romero is named after legendary zombie movie director, George A. Romero. His nicknames include "Little Man", "Little Ro", "Baby Boy" and "Little Daddy Ro". He was named Romero because it was similar to Roo to honor Roo's memory.

Good Dog: Behavior & Training
Ears Held Back
This action has many meanings

The eyes may be the mirror to the soul, and careful observations of both the mouth and the tail can yield all sorts of information about a dog’s intentions and emotional state, but the ears are a different matter altogether. The ears are more challenging to read and understand, and they usually have to be viewed in conjunction with other visual signals to make a useful interpretation. That is especially true when the ears are pulled back or held close to the head.

Ears that are tucked close to the head often indicate negative emotions. One possibility is sadness, which often results in ears that are tucked down close to the sides of the head. Dogs may show this when a favorite person departs. I once saw a dog pull his ears back like this when he saw some of his dog buddies playing but he couldn’t join them because he was on a stay.

Ears that are pulled back often indicate fearfulness, especially if combined with other facial signals associated with this emotion, such as a fear grimace in which the corners of the dog’s mouth are pulled back or dilated pupils. Sometimes dogs put their ears back when they are nervous, and that will often be combined with tongue flicks, panting, tension in the body, or other signs of anxiety. This is a common behavior in dogs who must be in the car but dislike road trips, or dogs who are overwhelmed by too many children at once.

When a dog’s ears are in their natural resting position, it typically indicates that a dog is comfortable in the situation. When dogs greet each other, it is common to see one dog maintain his natural ear posture, suggesting that he is at ease, while another dog puts them back, indicating the opposite. Putting the ears back in this context may be an appeasement behavior.

There are at least two more possible meanings associated with ears that are pulled back. Dogs who are about to bite often pin their ears tightly to the head. It has been suggested that this may simply protect them from injury by keeping them out of the way of any teeth in the vicinity that mean business. Finally, males will pull their ears back when they are courting a female, and this action is one of many that means he is interested in her.

The motion of pulling the ears back is quite obvious, but the meaning is not always so apparent.

Dog's Life: Humane
On the Job: What Do Animal Control Officers Really Do?

Recently I was pulled over on the side of the road in my animal control truck, entering notes from the call I had just finished. A man out checking his mail saw me and came over and tapped on my window. I rolled it down and he launched into a long complaint about the cost of his dog license. I tried to explain that his license fee helps ensure that we can be there to help animals in need, but he cut me off. “There was a dead dog in the street in front of my house one day and I called but you guys wouldn’t come. What is it you do then?” He demanded. I explained that our department doesn’t pick up DOA’s and again tried to tell him what we do. He brushed me off, asked me if I would go out with him and then turned and walked away when I said, no.

Most people have no idea what animal control officers do. April 9-15 is Animal Control Officer Appreciation Week so it seems like perfect timing to let people know why we are here. Yes, we pick up strays, and in some cases DOA’s, but there is so much more to it. ACO’s do humane investigations, seek justice for abuse, neglect and abandonment, and bring animals in need to safety. We write long reports, face abusers in court and deal with lost, injured, sick and aggressive animals. We protect people from dangerous animals and animals from dangerous people. We do bite quarantines and rabies prevention. We educate the public and teach people how to better care for their animals.   

I’ve seen abuse and neglect so severe that years later I still choke up at the memory. I’ve removed animals from the arms of their deceased owners, from fatal car accidents and from floods, fires and murder scenes. I’ve fed and cared for people’s pets and livestock at their homes while they were hospitalized. I’ve removed animals from homes and vehicles after their people were arrested and removed large aggressive guard dogs to enable law enforcement to search areas. I’ve picked up animals after suicides and animals that were left with human bodies and no food for long periods. Some of the things I’ve seen will haunt me for the rest of my life, but I do it because the animals need me.  

I’ve had to put critically injured deer down with a rifle at two in the morning in my headlight beams because they can’t be saved and a release from their pain and fear is the only mercy I can offer. I’ve been injured in a cockfighting raid and taken to the ER to be sewn up. I’ve been threatened by gang members and animal abusers. I’ve had people scream profanity in my face and flip me the bird for no reason at all. I’ve been called puppy killer and worse, by people who have no idea that I’ve dedicated my life to this profession because I think dogs and other animals are one of the greatest gifts we will ever have.

I’ve taken home animals that were too young, too ill, or too badly injured to stay at the shelter. I’ve stayed up all night caring for the orphaned, the broken and the dying. And I’ve dripped heartbroken tears over the ones I couldn’t save and the ones nobody wants. But I’ve also seen some incredible  rescues, saved animals from certain death and removed animals from terrible abuse and given them the life they deserve. That’s what keeps me going and that is why I do what I do.

And when someone tells me “I could never do your job, I love animals too much” I look them in the eye and say “I love them to much not to.” 

News: Editors
Dogs May Reduce Allergies and Obesity in Babies

For the past couple of decades researchers have been looking at the role that pets, especially dogs, have to play in rates of allergies in children. Many have found that, what is being termed the hygiene hypothesis, is indeed correct, meaning that a little dirt early in life helps to stave allergic diseases, including obesity.

A new study by Anita Kozyrskyj a pediatric epidemiologist of the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, found further evidence of this dog-human linkage and how this lessens the development of everything from obesity to asthma.

Starting in 2013 she wondered if she could pinpoint what and how this might be happening. Her team collected fecal samples from 4-month-old infants in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) pilot study. Of the 24 respondent infants, 15 lived in house with at least a dog or cat.

What they found was that within the households with pets, the children had a higher diversity of microbes in their guts. Microbes, as we now know, can be a good thing for our gut microbiome and immune systems actually develop alongside our gut’s “germs.”  Meaning that if babies grow in a more “sterile” pet-free environment, they would be more unprepared to “fight” germs as they grow up.

Kozyrskyj noted, "The abundance of these two bacteria (Firmicutes microbes) were increased twofold when there was a pet in the house," and added that the pet exposure was shown to affect the gut microbiome indirectly—from dog to mother to unborn baby—during pregnancy as well as during the first three months of the baby's life.

Also interestingly, this study suggested that the presence of pets in the house reduced the likelihood of the transmission of vaginal GBS (group B Strep) during birth, which causes pneumonia in newborns and is prevented by giving mothers antibiotics during delivery.

Kozyrskyj’s study confirms and expands on the work that many other researchers have shown that some “dirt” can be beneficial and help to ward off disease. Including one, conducted at Kuopio University Hospital in Finland in 2012, that concentrated on infants during their first year, and investigated the effect of contact with dogs on the “frequency of respiratory symptoms and infections.” Information about the length of time a dog spent indoors was also gathered, and turned out to be one of the key indicators.

The results were eye-opening. Children with dogs at home were healthier overall, had fewer infectious respiratory problems, fewer ear infections and were less likely to require antibiotics. Researchers considered these results supportive of the theory that children who live with dogs during their early years have better resistance throughout childhood. They also found that the effect was greater if the dog spent fewer than six hours inside, possibly because the longer dogs are outdoors, the more dirt they bring inside with them. The more dirt, the more “bacterial diversity.” This diversity is thought to have a protective influence by helping the child’s immune system to mature — that is, respond more effectively to infectious agents.

Then a 2013 study conducted by the University of California, San Francisco, and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, found that living with dogs may prevent children from developing asthma. Mice fed a solution containing dust from homes with dogs developed a resistance to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a childhood airway infectious agent. RSV, which is common in infants, is linked to a higher risk of childhood asthma. According to Dr. Susan Lynch of the study team, “Exposing the gastrointestinal tract to pet dust and other microbes early in life prepares it to respond appropriately to a variety of invaders. But since our modern lifestyles involve living in immaculate houses, our immune systems often overreact instead.” Early childhood is a critical period for developing protection against allergies and asthma, and exposure to pets can help.

The idea that our microorganisms may to some extent be collectively beneficial is intriguing. People and dogs have been exchanging microbes for at least 30,000 years, since the first little cave girl kissed the first proto-dog puppy smack on the muzzle. That’s a long history of sharing. It’s possible that our microorganisms are at least symbiotic, and perhaps even played a role in the dramatic domestication of the dog. 

As was reported in Nature: Researchers suspect that our long association with canines means that human and dog microbiomes may have developed in tandem. The microbiome of a baby growing up without a dog (and of a puppy growing up without a human) is, in a sense, incomplete. “All of the people alive today probably had ancestors who lived in tribes that hunted with dogs,” says Jack Gilbert, director of the Microbiome Center at the University of Chicago in Illinois.”

Since 2013, Canadian researcher, Kozyrskyj has expanded her pilot study from 24 to 746 infants, around half of whom were living in households with pets. Her team then compared the babies' microbial communities.

The results were basically the same, microbial life flourished in the infants living with pets. And not only that but the “team was now able to show that babies from families with pets (70% of which were dogs) had higher levels of two types of Firmicutes microbes — Ruminococcus and Oscillospira, which have been associated with a lower risk of allergic disease and leanness, respectively.

“Pet exposure can reduce allergic disease and obesity” later in life, added Hein Min Tun, a veterinarian and microbial epidemiologist and a member of Kozyrskyj’s research team.

And while it might be too soon to predict how this finding will play out in the future, they don’t rule out the concept of a “dog in a pill” as a preventive tool for allergies and obesity. Or, as we much rather see, “dog as the pill.”

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