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News: Editors
Super Bowl Ad Preview: Puppy Love
A treat from Budweiser

This is a very adorable ad from Budweiser that will air this Sunday during the Super Bowl. Only "downer" is that the pup isn't from a shelter! But this well-crafted ad is sure to tug at your heart strings. Those horses are just so majestic too. It will be hard for the other ads to compete with this one.

 

Sue Chipperton and Deborah Dellosso were the trainers of the litter of eight Labrador puppies who appear in the ad. When training began, the puppies were just 9-weeks-old.

As they noted in People:

"The puppies reacted fabulously to the Clydesdales," says Chipperton. "I was amazed at how brave and outgoing they were around these huge horses. They wanted to engage with them and were very excited to be in their presence." (Who wouldn't be?)

And it was the animals' interactions that made the TV magic, says the dogs' trainer.

"It's special because the connection was natural, it wasn't forced … a sweet moment from a gentle horse and an adventurous puppy." says Chipperton.

 

Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Scam Uses Cute Puppy Pictures
Beware of thieves using this tactic

In a new twist to an old trick designed to separate honest people from their money, a well-known scam in disguise is being targeted at dog lovers. If someone is interested in buying a dog online, they may be vulnerable to this con.

They are offered a dog, often of a rare and expensive breed, at a too-good-to-be-true price, but during the course of transporting the dog to them, additional fees crop up. They may be asked to send $1600 for insurance to ship the puppy or $1000 for vaccinations and a new pet carrier. Requests for food or for emergency veterinary care are sometimes made. Fees as much as $4600 have been requested to spring the puppy out of quarantine. By the time many victims realize that something isn’t right and that the puppy will NEVER be delivered, it’s too late, and any money they have already sent is gone forever.

This pet scam is a type of 4-1-9 scam, the most famous of which is the Nigerian Scam. In that scenario, the criminal contacts potential victims and claims to have a large fortune that needs to be transferred out of Nigeria. They say that in exchange for helping them with the transfer, they will be given a percentage of the millions of dollars. A variety of reasons are given for being unable to do so without help from an overseas partner. Usually, they have to do with legal technicalities related to their position in the government. Once the victim expresses interest, they are told of various fees and expenses required to make the transfer happen. People are often willing to pay a little now for the promise of a large fortune later, which is how they fall prey to the crime. Fees for multiple failed transfers and legal fees only serve to part people from their money.

Beware of all related scams and don’t let adorable puppy pictures cloud your good judgment. As investigators of such crimes often say, “If it seems too good to be true, it probably is.”

News: Editors
Dog and a Friendly Owl

With over 1million views, many of you have probably seen this video, but it was new to me when a friend showed it to me.

We have a dog very much like the one here, and it is great to see the dog's patience and acceptance of the owl's attention. I do think that our Lola would also sit so still and welcome this feathery friendship.

News: Guest Posts
Canine Urination 101: Handstands and Leg Lifts Are Just the Basics

As my Twitter bio says, I’m interested in your dog’s urine. I’m not kidding around here. For a recent Animal Behavior class, I buddied up with a doggie daycare and followed dogs on their afternoon walks. Yes. I was that person walking around NYC with a hand held camera, trailing dogs and video taping them as they peed.

This wasn’t a hypothesis testing experiment, I was simply trying to gauge what parts of urination were easily measured in a naturalistic context. I checked out things like urination duration, urine placement, leg position, leg height, tail position and post-pee scratching. If another dog was present, I got to see whether there was any over-marking (peeing on another dog’s pee) or adjacent marking (peeing nearby). I was just measuring stuff as you often do when starting to investigate why animals do what they do.

I’m not the only researcher interested in your dog’s urine. Patricia Yang and colleagues at The Georgia Institute of Technology have a similar interest in measuring things that might seem odd to measure. They’ve submitted the abstract The Hydrodynamics of Urination: to drip or jet to the Annual Fluid Dynamics Conference held by the American Physical Society in late November.

Using “high-speed videography” and “flow-rate measurement” they investigated independent urination styles, such as the dripping of small mammals and the “jetting” of large mammals. New Scientist interviewed Yang (and Discover has a piece out as well), and the coverage touches on urethra length, gravitational pull and the number of seconds it takes to empty bladders. I eagerly await how the published study links Newtonian physics to urine!

Truth be told, maybe I wanted to write this post so I could write “jetting” of large mammals, and show this video. Also, I want to go on vacation with these people*:

But as you’ve seen, urine does not begin and end with the jetting of large mammals. Dog urination is pretty awesome and a number of researchers are holding a figurative magnifying glass up to it (and you can too!). Some dogs let it all out at once — although, I’m pretty sure that’s not called “jetting”) — while others let a little out at a time. And then of course, there’s how they do it.

A recent study by Wirant and McGuire (2004) found that female Jack Russell Terriers assumed a number of urination positions, including the squat-raise (most common), squat, arch-raise, combination and handstand. They found that females“used the squat-raise and arch-raise postures more when off their home area then when on their home area.” If dog urination has a social function, it might make sense to present your urine in different ways depending on where you are and who you are encountering, don’t you think?

 

Here’s what you can do: When you’re out walking your dog, pay attention to their urine. Do they assume a different position if you take them to an area where they’ve never been or go infrequently? Or do they pull out the same tricks no matter where they are?

 

Leave your urine reports below, and share early and often. My business is urine, and it can be yours too.

——-
* What do you think? Better video title: 1) Wow, What a Pee, 2) Don’t Brag on Camera or 3) Did You Have a Good Pee, Mr. Rhino?

Photo: Flickr Nature’s Fire Hydrant via Mike Finkelstein Creative Commons

References
Wirant & McGuire. 2004. Urinary behavior of female domestic dogs (Canis familiaris): influence of reproductive status, location, and age. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 85, 335-348.

Pham et al. 2013. The Hydrodynamics of Urination: to drip or jet. Bulletin of the American Physical Society. 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics.
Volume 58, Number 18. November 24–26, 2013; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

 

 

This story was originally published by Scientific American. Reprinted

Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Service Dog Protection Law in N.J.
Legislation signed this week establishes penalties for harming guide dogs
Earlier this week, New Jersey signed Dusty's Law into effect, establishing criminal penalties for hurting, or even interfering with, a service dog. To date, it's one of the most comprehensive guide dog protection laws passed by a state.

Previously police had to refer these cases over to animal control agencies that didn't always have the resources to immediately investigate. Proponents of the bipartisan legislation see Dusty's Law as critical since a hurt or dead service dog puts their person in imminent danger.

The Law is named for Dusty, a German Shepherd puppy who was mauled by a dog in Woodcliff Lake, N.J. when he was out being trained for guide dog duties. Dusty was fortunate to survive the ordeal, but lost four teeth and suffered psychological trauma that kept him from continuing his work in The Seeing Eye program. His puppy raiser also sustained permanent injuries in the attack.

Because of their non-aggressive nature and loyalty to staying by their person, service dogs are particularly susceptible to an attack. According to a study by The Seeing Eye, 44 percent of guide dog users had experienced at least one attack by another animal and more than 80 percent said they'd had some kind of interference by another animal.

Under Dusty's Law, offenses are punishable by up to 18 months in prison and a fine of up to $10,000, depending on the severity. The law also requires restitution if a service dog is killed or injured, which can include the animal's value, veterinary bills, and lost income.

While this law won't make guide dogs any less vulnerable, it will hopefully provide the protection needed to lessen attacks. I hope more states will adopt similar laws!

Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Walking Multiple Dogs
Making this challenge more manageable

“I would walk my dogs more often if they acted like that!” the man said as Lucy, Baxter and I passed him on the sidewalk in my neighborhood. Both dogs were walking calmly, one on either side of me. They were relaxed, their leashes were loose, and it was a pleasant walk for all of us. While I was dogsitting for them, I was happy to take them out for two long walks a day and some round-the-block-to-pee outings.

It’s fun to take dogs out when they are well behaved, but the sad truth is that if it is miserable to take dogs out for a walk, those walks don’t happen as often as they should. That’s especially true if multiple dogs are involved. After all, it’s one thing to have a single dog pulling you around the neighborhood, but it’s far worse when it feels like a complete sled dog team is putting their muscle into hauling you around. It’s no fun and it’s not safe, especially in winter if you live where there is snow and ice.

The good news is that there are various ways to improve your experience when walking multiple dogs. I like to place the options in two different categories in my mind. Some are short-term solutions and others are for the long term.

One way to make your walks with more than one dog more enjoyable is to change the equipment you are using. Just adding head collars such as the Gentle Leader or the Snoot Loop can make a huge difference. These collars fit over the nose of your dog and act very much like halters on horses. When fit properly, it’s like having power steering for your dogs, and they have helped many people have control over their dogs in a gentle humane way. Another option is the Easy Walk Harness, which also puts physics on your side so that dogs are unable to pull as they can with basic flat collars. I don’t recommend prong collars or choke chains because they can injure and scare dogs.

Before taking all your dogs out on walks with any new equipment, I recommend taking each one alone at least once. These various collars and harnesses are not difficult to use, but it’s sensible to get the feel of walking each dog with something new before trying it en masse. Taking dogs out one at a time allows you to concentrate on how each individual is adjusting and reacting to the change. If you need to make an adjustment to make it fit better, it’s easier to handle that without the rest of the crew.

Walking one dog is easier than walking two, three, four or more, and another short-term option is walking the dogs one at a time. While this is less efficient and results in either more time walking for the humans or less time walking for each dog, it is still preferable to nobody getting a walk. There are people who adopt this strategy permanently, but for most people, it’s just a way to give dogs exercise while working up to walking dogs together once again.

Working towards group walks means training! It may not be intuitive, but if dogs are to be expected to walk nicely on leashes, they have to be taught to do so. Just like any other skill, it takes practice for your dogs to learn and perfect. It is best to work on training each dog in individual sessions before working with them all simultaneously.

The first step in training a dog to walk nicely beside you is to encourage him to be by your side and reinforce him when he’s in the right spot. In an open area with no other dogs present such as a fenced-in yard, let your dog know that you have tasty treats (or a ball or squeaky toy if your dog prefers toys over treats) and then help him earn them every time he walks beside you. Click your tongue, smooch, slap your leg, or wave a treat next to you, and let him have the goodies for taking a stride or two next to you. If he gets ahead of you, turn around and treat him for catching up. Make sure to give him the treats when he is next to you rather than in front of you since you are teaching him it’s fun to walk next to you, NOT that’s it’s fun to be out in front. The goal is to be interesting to your dog so that he wants to be next to you. Changing your speed and direction will make you more interesting to most dogs, so make sure you speed up, slow down and make a lot of turns.

Once the first step is going well, the next step is to teach your dog that it’s fun to pay attention to you and that wonderful things will happen if he decides on his own to join you and walk next to you. In a safe open area, walk in big circles. Resist the urge to help your dog attend to you. The idea is to teach him that he will be glad if he decides to walk next to you, and he can’t learn that lesson as effectively if you encourage him in any way. The goal is for him to learn that choosing you over everything else in the environment will result in good things for him. It’s important to use high quality treats and reinforce your dog for making good decisions about his behavior and attention.

The third step is to add a leash and go on a walk to work on this behavior. Shower him with treats every time he is in the right position. If he is behind you, encourage him to catch up and reinforce him for doing so. If he gets ahead of you, turn around so that he has the opportunity to catch up to you and receive treats. This is a good time to add in the cue “heel” so that eventually you can cue him to perform this behavior. Say “heel” every time you move forward when he is by your side. Heeling is not easy for dogs, so make sure to give a lot of treats in these early stages of training. Giving too few treats is one of the most common mistakes of novice trainers. Remember to be generous like experienced trainers are! Later, you can reduce the frequency of treats. Intersperse short sessions of heeling on the walk, relying on your equipment in the interim periods to prevent your dog from pulling. Most dogs require lots of practice before perfecting this skill, and many short sessions are more effective than a single longer one.

The last step is to put your dogs together and walk as a group. If you have many dogs, you may need to start with pairs of dogs, then triples and then work up to the whole canine family walking together. Some people find that walking all of their dogs on one side works best, but others have an easier time with one dog on one side and one or more dogs on the other. Only you can decide what is best for you and your dogs, but it’s a good idea to observe your dogs to help figure out the best option. Sometimes a dog is uncomfortable walking beside a particular dog and it makes sense to honor that and adjust positions accordingly.

I enjoyed all my walks with Lucy and Baxter, and that’s what I wish for anyone, whether they have more than one dog or not. The combination of equipment that helps eliminate pulling and training dogs to heel should make walking your dogs a recreational activity instead of it feeling like a grueling endurance event.

News: Guest Posts
The First Canine Laryngectomy
Bean during her intake at the Humane Society of Silicon Valley shelter.

At her intake at a shelter in April 2012, Bean was a pup with a familiar profile: a Pit Bull whose family could no longer care for her. But it wasn’t long before someone at the Humane Society of Silicon Valley in Milpitas, California did notice something unusual about her.

It was her lack of “boing,” says staff member Finnegan Dowling. “No Pit Bull puppy should be that mellow.”

Bean also had a stiff walk. When she was excited, she hopped like a bunny. They took her for x-rays, but even sedation didn’t relax her joints enough to get pictures, Dowling says, and the vet referred her to UC Davis for an MRI scan.

There, Dr. Karen Vernau, chief of the Neurology and Neurosurgery Service at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, discovered that her hip joints were improperly formed. Bean’s determined spirit wasn’t lost on Vernau, but her chances of adoption seemed slim.

The five month old pup was suffering from muscular dystrophy, a progressive and currently incurable disease that would affect many parts of her body.  

According to notes in Bean’s file at the Humane Society, she was scheduled for a procedure at Davis on May 25. By the 29th, she was diagnosed with myopathy, a neurological condition. But somewhere in between those dates, Dowling says, Dr. Vernau’s relationship with her patient “went from obligation to affection.”

Vernau and her family decided to adopt Bean.  As the vet told a reporter, “We didn’t intend to go down this path with her, but she just sucked us in.”

This happy ending was only the beginning of Bean’s harrowing medical story.

Gradually, things got worse. Surgery to correct her hips was followed by relief—then new problems. A massive hernia called for another surgery. Her swallowing improved, but the muscles in her esophagus were failing and there were bouts of vomiting so intense she would sometimes choke and pass out. Bean grew thinner as she struggled with aspiration (food getting into her respiratory tract when eating), which caused pneumonia.

Her vets sought help from colleagues in human medicine, a multidisciplinary approach the university encourages through its “One Health Initiative.” They included Dr. Stan Marks, a gastrointestinal specialist, and Dr. Peter Belafsky, an expert in human swallowing and airway disorders, and others.

With help from the biomedical engineering department, Bean had been fitted with a feeding tube that allowed her to eat several times per day. It worked beautifully, according to Dr. Marks.

But it didn’t stop the vomiting.

Since the vomiting put her life at risk, Belafsky concluded that they would have to stop it by removing her larynx.

Belafsky, who performed the second documented human larynx transplant, knew how profoundly such problems affect a person’s quality of life. And it was clearly true for Bean.

Her surgery, which lasted more than three hours, was the first ever canine laryngectomy. The procedure is typically used to treat human cancer. According to Belafsky, the separation of her breathing and swallowing tubes will prevent food from getting into her lungs when she eats or vomits.

The lessons learned in Bean’s treatment will impact human care, and vice versa, Belafsky said in a press conference after the surgery. Belafsky hopes she will inspire human patients who have also lost their voice and now breathe through a hole in their neck. She may just get a guest membership in the “Lost Cords Club” for people who have had a laryngectomy.

After all, Bean is only two years old, but has slept out more than 100 rounds of anesthesia and undergone eight surgeries and countless other procedures. Her “can’t do list” is long. Can’t bark, breathe or swallow normally. Forget gobbling down a treat, and she can’t swim without drowning due to the tracheostomy tube.

But the list of things she once endured, the choking and pneumonia, has been tossed.

Now when she accompanies Vernau to the hospital, she serves as ambassador and teacher, allowing students to experience canine tube feeding.

At home, Bean is learning new ways to enjoy life, which still holds plenty of the good old stuff – balls to chew, cushy beds, and a loving family that includes two other dogs.

Watch this video about Bean's surgery and recovery.

 

 

Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Hiking Guide Dog Passes Away
Randy Pierce says goodbye to an amazing canine partner
Quinn, the seeing eye dog who helped Randy Pierce hike all of New Hampshire's 48 4,000+ foot mountains, including the 6,288 foot Mt. Washington three times, passed away yesterday at the age of nine. In 2012, at the time of their achievement, only 46 people could make the same claim.

I was, and still am, in awe of this team. Having hiked one of the New Hampshire 4,000 footers with my dog, I know it is no easy feat with perfect vision! Seeing how Scuttle navigates rocky terrain, I can see it would take a lot of restraint and very strong muscles on Quinn's part to hike the mountain while helping Randy.

Randy and Quinn's journey is even more amazing because by 2003, Randy's neurological disorder left him completely blind and in a wheelchair. But with the Labrador's help, Randy spent the next two years working to get out of his wheelchair.

After working hard to gain mobility, Randy and Quinn began taking their activities to the next level, hiking and even running together. After completing the New Hampshire 4,000 footers, Randy and Quinn went on to run the Boston Athletic Association 5k last year.  

Inspired by their progress and thankful for his robust support group, Randy founded 2020 Vision Quest to share his story and raise money for Guiding Eyes for the Blind (the organization that trained Quinn) and The New Hampshire Association for the Blind. In 2015, Randy is planning to run in the Boston Marathon, sadly without Quinn.

News: Guest Posts
How Well Do You Know Your Dog? Part 2

Does it smell weird in here to you?

You know what I’m talking about. That nagging feeling that something smells “different,” but you just can’t put a finger on it. This has been my life for the last three days. Day after day, I’d enter the living room and think, “Did it always smell like that in here? It smells different, right? What is that!?”

On the fourth day, I finally sat down on the couch to read a book. On the coffee table before me sat a bowl of chestnuts. They had yet to be roasted. “Chestnuts don’t have a smell,” I thought. To the right of the chestnuts, the remote. Electronics, also void of smell (although my Game Boy got moldy, and that smelled). Then, I saw it. Next to the remote sat the biggest, most obvious thing on the table, the centerpiece you might say. A large, overripe cantaloupe. It had been there for 6 days and with the radiator pumping out heat (because it is so cold!), the cantaloupe was starting to mush, and that mush was permeating the air and my nostrils. How could I miss it? It was the most prominent thing in the room. Yet day after day, I missed that the gnarly cantaloupe was behind the new stench.

That’s how I feel about dogs. Not that they are starting to smell (although some of them might be), but that despite them being major parts of our lives, we can overlook the important bits.

I left 2013 by posing a question: How Well Do You Know Your Dog? Part 1. The answer: If judging by smell, you know your dog pretty well. In one study, people could identify the smell of their dog compared to an unknown dog in a “smell test.” I finished Part 1 suggesting that while we might be attuned to some nuanced bits of our dogs — like their smell — we’re not attuned to all parts of them, like behavior. I’ll explain.

Is Snoopy happy?
In a study by Wan et al. (2012), participants watched short video clips of dogs (some of which you can view at Dr. Wan’s website here). They then rated the dog’s emotional state and noted which body parts tipped them off. Because the videos had no sound, participants had to rely on dog behavior to label a dog as, say, fearful or happy. And these videos were not just any videos. They had been pre-screened by dog behavior experts (listed below) whose schooling trains them to look at animal behavior and make science-based assessments. Because Wan and her colleagues wanted to know whether our perception of emotions in dogs is shaped by our experience with dogs, study participants were grouped as having little or no experience with dogs, having lived with a dog at some point, or working with dogs for more or less than ten years.

We know happy! But…
Wan and colleagues found that happy dogs were easiest to identify. Even people with little dog experience could watch a dog frolicking in the snow or rolling joyfully on its back and describe that dog as happy.

But fear was different. Study participants who were dog professionals did a better job identifying fear compared to both dog owners and people with little dog experience. The authors suggest that “professional experience with dogs aids proficiency in interpretations of fearful behavior.” It didn’t matter how many years the dog professionals had spent working with dogs; they had the same proficiency in identifying fear.

So why did dog professionals do so much better in identifying fear? One reason could be that professionals looked at more dog body parts for clues, such as the eyes, ears, mouth and tongue, while non-professionals looked at fewer body parts, focusing primarily on legs, paws and tails. More details in the figure provided by Wan et al. (2012).

The researchers summarize: “The results of the current study are among the first to demonstrate that the perception of an emotion in dogs can be associated with human observers’ level of dog experience.”

While many of us love dogs to pieces (Buzzfeed reminds me of this on a daily basis), noticing and interpreting their subtle behaviors can take practice. That’s okay! Behavior observation can be learned.

Keeping an eye out for fear
Even if you live with the most happy go lucky dog on the planet, fear should still be on your radar, especially if your dog ever interacts with other dogs. Recognizing fear in another dog can help you give that dog space; their owner can take it from there.

What does fear look like? It can include a wide variety of body parts and body postures. Wan and colleagues explain, “…fearful dogs are said to reduce their body size – crouching into a low posture, flattening their ears, and holding their tails in a low position. Shaking, yawning, salivation, freezing, panting, paw-lifting, and vocalizing are examples of other behaviors that have been associated with fear in dogs.”

Maybe, in certain contexts, you notice fearful behaviors in your own dog and want to help decrease it. Like gymnasts, fear is flexible. Just as dogs can sensitize to stimuli, so too can they habituate. With classical- and operant-conditioning techniques, behavior management, and maybe some professional assistance (see below), dogs can have a modified outlook on life. What does a modified outlook look like? Check out Masey’s progress over at Reactive Champion.

Sometimes we just can’t piece it together that the cantaloupe smells. But of course, a trained fruit expert would exclaim, “Julie! Your cantaloupe is rotting.” You see where I’m going with this. Sometimes dogs are fearful, and the clues are right in front of us, like a rotting cantaloupe. Learn to recognize dog fear behavior. This is a blog about dogs after all. Not cantaloupe.

 

Photo: a muddy dog…..is a happy dog via bambe1964; National. Flickr Creative Commons

References & Recommended Reading
Companion Animal Psychology. 2013. Review of Wan et al. (2012). Does Experience Help People Recognize Emotion in Dogs?
Goldman, J. 2012. What Is Classical Conditioning? (And Why Does It Matter?). The Thoughtful Animal
Goldman, J. 2012. What Is Operant Conditioning? (and How Does It Explain Driving Dogs?). The Thoughtful Animal
Thompson, C. Reactive Champion Blog.

This article first appeared on DogSpies, Scientific American. Used with permission.
 

Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Innovating Shelter Design
NYC architects revamp the traditional layout for housing homeless pups

Although my relationship with Scuttle began at the local shelter, it's still a depressing place to visit. Rows of dark kennels filled with barking dogs isn't enjoyable for the poor animals or the overworked staff. And this of course impacts the visitor experience.

It's been great to see a new trend of shelters designed to improve the atmosphere, such as the San Francisco SPCA with its spacious, homey rooms and the New York-based Animal Haven with its boutique style windows featuring pets for adoption.

This new wave of design is being taken to the next level with the Staten Island Animal Care Center in New York City. The improved shelter will be built from the ground up by Garrison Architects as part of the city's Design Excellence program. The initiative puts public building projects in the hands of top architects, an amazing opportunity to bring innovation to neglected places like the animal shelter.

According to James Garrison, the company's founder, the driving force behind the design process was to increase adoption rates. His team found that happy animals make for happy humans, leading to a total revamp of the traditional shelter layout.

Instead of cramming cages inside long, dark holding areas, the plan is to create rooms that line the perimeter of the building, giving animals exposure to floor to ceiling windows. The design also allows the rooms to be smaller, replacing long rows of kennels with separate areas of seven or eight cages. This will help alleviate barking dogs feeding off each other's stress.

James' team is also planning for custom acoustic separations to keep noise down to a minimum. Normally carpet or cloth would be used to absorb sound, but these materials are also good at absorbing urine. Instead, the rooms will use a special perforated steel material for the ceiling and multi-shell polycarbonate for the walls. These materials will reduce resonating sound, while still being easy to clean. The building will also incorporate as much natural ventilation and light as possible to create a clean and inviting atmosphere.

As if the new design wasn't inspiring enough, an area of the new shelter will be be named after Tommy Monahan, a local nine year old who died after running into his burning home to save the family's Yorkshire Terrier and lizard. It's a special way to remember a boy's love for his pets.

Construction on the new shelter started this month and is scheduled to be complete by April 2015. I can't wait to see the building when it's unveiled!

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