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Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Snow Affects Elimination
Tips for helping your dog “go” this season

“Help! My dog won’t “go” in the snow!” Some dogs hold it so long that it’s worrisome and others simply choose to go inside the house, even if this is something they would never do when the weather is more to their liking. Elimination problems when there is snow are common, especially for dogs who have never been in snow and for small dogs who struggle with cold to any degree. There are likely at least two reasons why dogs show a reluctance to eliminate when snow covers the ground.

Most dogs learn at a very young age what surfaces are appropriate for bathroom use. While still puppies, they experience certain substrates such as grass, leaves, concrete, or indoor training pads or litters, and those are what they are likely to prefer for the rest of their lives. When dogs encounter snow, they often just don’t know that it is okay to eliminate on it. Puppies who learn their housetraining skills during a snowy winter are far less likely to have this problem. So, even though I consider raising a puppy in winter to have its miseries, an advantage is that the dog is less likely to balk at eliminating in the snow each winter.

Another issue for dogs with the snow is the obvious one—it’s cold! There is the cold air itself and also the cold snow on their paws (and on their legs and bellies in some cases!) For dogs unfamiliar with snow, especially small dogs who are not fans of cold under any circumstances, they simply hate the feeling of cold and snow. This makes them resistant to head out at all, and unable to relax enough to go once they are outside, which is perfectly understandable.

Luckily, they are ways to help your dog so that eliminating in the winter is still something that happens on the ground outside rather than on the carpet inside. One method that many use is shoveling out a patch of grass for them along with a path from the door to the potty area. I’ve had clients who have tried to minimize the work involved by shoveling a path to an area protected from the snow such as under a balcony or even under a trampoline. Most dogs are more likely to head out to take care of business if it’s easier to walk there and if there is a snow-free area available to them.

Many dogs do better if you go out with them. Not everybody wants to head out with their dogs in freezing temperatures to wade through the snow together, but if you find that it leads to success, it may be worth it to you. In some cases, several outings may be required. You can go out with your dog, and if he doesn’t eliminate within 5-10 minutes, take him inside with you, keeping him right with you on leash so he can’t sneak off and “go” in the house. After another 5-10 minutes, head outside together to try again. You can repeat this many times, and though it takes considerable effort, it does work for most dogs.

Some dogs struggle the most to eliminate in the yard when it’s snowy, but do better on walks through the neighborhood. If it’s not so cold that your dog’s paws can’t take it, walks may inspire your dog to eliminate. Being away from the yard is helpful, and the activity may make your dog’s need to go more urgent. Leading your dog to areas where other dogs have already gone (yellow snow has its benefits!) may encourage your dog, too.

Training your dog to eliminate on cue has helped many dogs potty in all sorts of new and confusing situations, including snow, but it’s most helpful to teach your dog this skill before the weather is working against you. There are two steps to this training process:

1) Reinforce elimination behavior by giving your dog a really great treat every time he pees or poops. Don’t wait until your dog comes running back to the house to give him the treat or he’ll think he earned the treat by running over to you. Stand right near him as he goes and give him the treat the instant he is done eliminating so he connects going potty with receiving a treat.

2) Once you have done this many times and he begins to look at you expectantly for that treat after eliminating, add in the cue. Take him outside as usual to eliminate and give the cue you want to use to tell him to eliminate, making sure to say it before he goes. Common cues are “Hurry Up”, “Get Busy” and “Go Potty.” With enough practice, a dog will learn that when you say the cue, he should take care of business. Continue to reinforce him with treats once you have added in the cue so that he knows he did the right thing and is happy that he did.

Once your dog can eliminate on cue, you can give him the cue in situations where he might not be sure that the area is acceptable, such as in snow or in a rocky area without grass. It’s just one more way that specific training allows you to communicate with your dog and make it easier for him to understand what to do.

Does your dog resist going potty in the snow? If so, how have you handled it?

Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Lindsey Vonn Adopts a 'Rehab Buddy'
The popular skier finds a pup also recovering from a leg injury

There's nothing like a fuzzy puppy to cuddle up with when you're sick or an energetic dog to get you outside when you're depressed. After succumbing to a knee injury just weeks before the Winter Olympics, Lindsey Vonn has discovered the joys of rescuing a pup in need.

The day after withdrawing from the Sochi games, the popular skier visited the Furry Friends Adoption and Clinic in Jupiter, Florida to bring home Leo, a brindle Boxer mix with a shattered leg. While Lindsey's injury resulted in a missed Olympics, Leo's injury led him to be abandoned at the shelter. Both Lindsey and Leo will require surgery and rehabilitation to get back to full health.

Last week Lindsey posted on Instagram, “I adopted Leo today from an animal shelter and he has cheered me up so much! He was hit by a car and has a bad knee. Maybe we can do rehab together! #meantforeachother #bumkneebuddies.”

What a perfect pair. I'm so glad that they found each other!

News: Editors
Lucy The Beagle Problem Solves
And gets her chicken nugget reward

I'm sure most of you have seen this rather amazing video of Lucy the Beagle demonstrating that humans aren't the only species who use/make tools. Pretty darn ingenious for her to figure out how to propel herself up to snag her chicken nugget quarry. I'm certainly glad that none of my dogs have figured this out yet. Have any of yours?

 

 

Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Facial Recognition by Dogs
They respond to photos of familiar faces

You know your dog knows who you are, right? That enthusiastic greeting when you come home is proof positive that he recognizes you. But what clues him in to your identity—the sound of your footsteps, your voice, your unique smell, that palpable charm? That may all be possible, but recent evidence suggests that dogs can actually recognize faces.

The ability to recognize faces is important for social animals. When living in a group, identifying individual members and being able to distinguish them from one another is essential for keeping track of specific social interactions. For dogs as well as humans, this skill is highly developed.

In a recent study called How dogs scan familiar and inverted faces: an eye movement study published in the journal Animal Cognition, researchers investigated facial recognition in the domestic dog. They concluded that:

  • Dogs prefer to look at faces of other dogs than at human faces.
  • They spend a lot of time looking at the eyes, suggesting that they perceive that the images are faces.
  • Dogs are more interested in familiar than unfamiliar human faces.
  • Pet dogs with families are more responsive to human faces than kennel dogs, but both prefer dog faces over human faces.

These results are similar to those found when studying humans and other primates with the same technique used in this study—tracking eye movement. Across the many species that have been studied previously, primates are more interested and spend more time looking at faces of members of their own species. Similarly, primates look at the eyes of faces, just as dogs did.

This study also investigated dogs’ responses to faces that are shown upside down. Such inversions are interesting to cognitive scientists because there is evidence in other species that inverted faces are not processed the same way as faces that are oriented in the normal way.

Humans are able to identify faces quickly and accurately because we have a mechanism to identify faces that is separate from the system used to identify other sorts of objects. The face is looked at as a complete structure with tiny differences in the configuration of its parts rather than as separate parts as we do with other objects. When faces are upside down, the process of facial recognition is disrupted and we are forced to identify the face as we would other objects, as parts that must be looked at and evaluated individually rather than as a whole. The facial recognition that is usually so effective doesn’t work well on inverted faces. They are processed as other sorts of objects are—piece by piece—rather than as an integrated whole, which is why we are not as good at identifying faces in this way.

Dogs, according to this study, fixate on upside down faces longer, suggesting that it is more difficult for them to identify them than when they are upright. They do spend a lot of time looking at the eyes even in upside down faces, which suggests that they do recognize these images as faces despite their position.

Because dogs have lived with humans for so long, they provide an interesting model for studying facial recognition since they are adept at identifying individual faces in their own as well as in our species.

News: Editors
Dog Is My Co-Pilot: In Action

We just got this wonderful note and video from Tamandra Michaels, a perfect representative for our slogan, Dog Is My Co-Pilot. She writes:

"I think I tried to share this video I had made of my puppy on your Facebook page, but not sure if was really seen. I just wanted to really share this, as I have your shirt on, and he is so fitting with “dog is my co-pilot.” You blogged about my last Shepherd, who pulled me in my wheelchair, and was a very special guy. I was so devastated to lose him. This current pup has really healed me, and is turning out to be just as special, a very amazing boy! He loves to pull me fast in the chair, but also developed this talent all on his own—and it has to be his idea ha ha. He pushes me with his nose, all over the place. It's just especially cool when I have your shirt on .… It fits my whole philosophy of training, too. Force free, truly a team mate, co-pilot :)"

 

You can read more about her and this amazing dog, Justice True, on http://journeywithjustice.com

 

 

 

 

News: Editors
Clever Video Promo for Guide Dogs
From the Norwegian Association of the Blind

This is a very clever video from the Norwegian Association of the Blind about gaining access for their guide dogs. It's hard to believe that would be in an issue in a socially progressive Scandinavian country, but seems like it is one. So we hope this "Could Have Been Worse" video goes a long way in making it easier for them and their wonderful dogs.

Dog's Life: Lifestyle
ASPCA Ends Law Enforcement Unit
The NYPD will take over animal cruelty cases in NYC.

The ASPCA has spent the last 147 years advocating for animals, finding homes for pets, providing medical care, and enforcing anti-cruelty laws. In 1866, ASPCA founder Henry Bergh convinced state lawmakers to enact the nation's first anti-cruelty law. The organization then served as the primary law enforcement agency for animal abuse and neglect in New York City, a role that was the first of its kind in the nation. Decades later, the division was even featured on the Animal Planet reality television show, Animal Precinct.

However, all that has changed with the appointment of the new ASPCA president, Matthew Bershadker. Matthew, who previously led the organization's anti-cruelty department, has shifted law enforcement responsibilities to the New York Police Department, saying that they are better staffed to handle the workload.  

The NYPD started working on a subset of animal abuse complaints in September as part of a pilot program. Then in December, the ASPCA laid off most of its 17 remaining law enforcement agents in preparation for a full transfer of responsibilities. The ASPCA will support the NYPD by aiding case prosecution, increasing veterinary forensics work, training officers and assistant district attorneys, and handling confiscated animals. A new ward at the ASPCA Animal Hospital has been created specifically for pets brought in by the NYPD.

Some have praised the change, saying that the ASPCA's small enforcement staff can't handle the volume of abuse reports. Over the past few years, the division has handled about 4,000 investigations annually, resulting in about one arrest per week. Reports made through a dedicated hotline soared from 2008 to 2011 when Animal Precinct was on the air.  

However, others, including some of the dismissed agents, are concerned that animal abuse cases will be given a lower priority by officers dealing with a full case load of human crimes.

"If they think they can just give this to regular police officers and have them handle it, they're crazy," said David Favre, an expert on animal law at the Michigan State University. "It's hard work. It's different work. It's important work. And it's sad that the ASPCA isn't doing it anymore."

There's no question that the NYPD has the manpower to handle the job (34,000+ officers versus 17), but that is only if they have the right training and a mandate from the top to make the cases a priority. In 2011, the ASPCA found that while nearly all law enforcement officers (in a nationwide study) feel they should play a role in enforcing animal cruelty law, only 41 percent say they know the relevant laws in their area and just 30 percent say they know the penalties. 

The NYPD does seem to be putting in the right steps to reverse those numbers. A dedicated staff of two, 25-year NYPD veteran George Kline, and former Bronx County assistant district attorney Elizabeth Brandler, will be providing support to the NYPD relating to anti-cruelty law enforcement. George will coordinate training for all eight NYPD patrol boroughs and district attorneys and Elizabeth will provide criminal law expertise to assist in case prosecution. 

I hope that this shift in responsibilities is successful and creates a standard for how law enforcement is trained on anti-cruelty practices. 

News: Guest Posts
How Well Do You Know Your Dog? Part 1

Your knowledge of your dog is unparalleled: You, not I, know whether she sleeps in the same spot all night or instead has a migratory sleep pattern. You know her affinity for trash, or lack thereof. And telling me her breed, age or name won’t give me access to those intimate details. They are for you to know, and for me to, well, not know.

Recently, researchers at The Queen’s University of Belfast found that our knowledge of dogs extends beyond what we see. Deborah Wells and Peter Hepper of the Canine Behaviour Center in the School of Psychology “examined the ability of humans to identify individual dogs by smell.” (An alternate title could have been, “Turning the Tables: Dogs Aren’t the Only Ones Who Can Sniff”).

In the study, dog owners smelled two blankets — one that had been infused with the individual odor of their dog, and one that had the smell of an unfamiliar dog. In case you ever want to try this at home, to infuse a dog’s smell in a blanket, the researchers placed the blanket in the dog’s bed for three nights with nothing else in there. Dog owners were blindfolded and then smelled the two blankets. The blindfold prevented owners from noticing, for example, that the blanket was covered with their dog’s hair (if anyone out there has figured out a way not to be covered in dog hair, contact me at @dogspies).

So what happened in the sniff test? Owners rocked! Without the help of visual cues, 88.5% were able to accurately say which blanket smelled like their dog (23 out of 26 owners).

While we don’t ordinarily think of ourselves as a species who pays much attention to smell, when it comes to those we care about, our nose knows more than we think it knows. Back in the 1980s, researchers learned that mothers who’ve just given birth can identify a t-shirt impregnated with the smell of their newborn. As children age, both mothers and fathers can identify their child’s smell when given the “smell this t-shirt” test.  Now we can add our dogs to this list. (If you live with a college-aged male, you might want to avoid the “smell this t-shirt” test.)

I wanted to say goodbye to 2013 with this study because it’s a reminder of how tuned in we can be to our dogs. We rightly allude to dogs as “man’s best friend” and many proclaim to be members of “nations of dog lovers.”

But at the same time, we often get dogs wrong. We think we have a solid understanding of who dogs are and what makes them tick, but animal behavior and cognition research continues to reveal there’s more of a disconnect than we may realize. We make human-based assumptions, rely on old theories and frequently don’t look at actual dog behavior.

Here at Dog Spies, we’ll ring in 2014 with How Well Do You Know Your Dog?: Part 2. I’m on a continual quest to see the dogs right in front of me on their terms, not mine. I hope you’ll join me!

———-

Photo: Girl Smelling Marigolds via moodboard. Flickr Creative Commons.

References
Kaitz et al. 1987. Mothers’ recognition of their newborns by olfactory cues. Developmental Psychobiology 20, 587-591.

Porter & Moore. 1981. Human kin recognition by olfactory cues. Physiology and Behaviour 27, 493- 495.

Porter et al. 1983. Maternal recognition of neonates through olfactory cues. Physiology and Behaviour 30, 151-154.

Wells & Hepper. 2000. The discrimination of dog odours by humans. Perception 29, 111-115.

 

This story was originally published by Scientific American. Reprinted with permission.

Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Staying Warm with the Pups
How are you keeping toasty during the historic freeze?

As the U.S. weathers a historic freeze, schools closed, people stayed home from work, and planes were grounded in much of the country. With the wind making it feel well below zero in many areas (-55 in International Falls, Minn.!), most people are opting to hole up at home. But us dog people know that no matter what Mother Nature brings, we still have to walk our pups.  

It's weather like this that makes me thankful I trained a quick potty behavior! Because of this, I haven't bothered putting any extra layers on the dogs before they go outside to "do their business" (I don't even bother putting on a jacket myself). But if we were going to be outside longer than a few minutes, I'd definitely put their coats on... and maybe even booties!

With the freezing temperatures, outdoor play time is pretty much out of the question. Many of my friends planned long hikes on Sunday to exercise their dogs before the cold temperatures rolled in. When I winter hike with my pups, they wear their coats and I bring a fleece or down jacket for them to put on during breaks (so their muscles don't get cold). But the current temperatures and wind conditions are too cold for even the most bundled up dog. So I've resorted to indoor games that get the dogs' brains working, like box shaping and tugging, to burn off energy.  Self control games, like crate games, are great for tiring out pups (and have endless other benefits as well).

On a more disturbing note, there are many reports on social media of dogs left outside to freeze to death in the blistering cold. I really hope this problem is not as widespread as Facebook and other outlets makes it seem. In most areas the weather is too extreme even for dogs acclimated to winter temperatures.

How are you and your pup staying warm?

Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Dogs Can Sense Earth’s Magnetic Field
It influences their orientation during elimination

A new study called Dogs are sensitive to small variations of the Earth’s magnetic field published in the Journal Frontiers in Zoology has demonstrated that dogs can sense and respond to magnetic fields. It is the first time that this has been shown in this species. Researchers found a measurable change in behavior based on the conditions of the magnetic field.

Specifically, they found that under certain conditions, dogs choose to pee and poop with their bodies aligned along the north-south axis and avoided orientation along the east-west axis. They studied 70 dogs from 37 different breeds over a two-year period, observing 1893 defecations and 5582 urinations. Observations were all made while the dogs were off leash and in open fields so that they were not influenced by walls, fences, fire hydrants or other objects.

The researchers collected data on dog directionality (and hopefully all the poop, too) and found that the way dogs face is not just a matter of chance. They ruled out such factors as time of day, angle of the sun and wind conditions. Their analysis found that the Earth’s magnetic field explained dogs’ orientation when doing their business. Interestingly, the pattern only emerged when the magnetic field was stable, which was only about 30 percent of the time. The Earth’s magnetic field can become unstable due to such factors as the variation in solar winds and the sun’s magnetic field. During such periods of instability, dogs did not show a preference for aligning themselves along the north-south axis and oriented randomly.

This research has been written about extensively in the media, possibly because any scientific research that involves potty talk is inherently amusing to journalists. Though the behavior that the researchers studied was elimination, to focus on that is to miss what’s really important about the study.

What I think is so fascinating is the revelation that dogs are able to sense the Earth’s magnetic field and that their behavior is influenced by it. It has been known for a long time that dog senses, particularly the sense of smell, mean that they are responsive to stimuli that we humans aren’t aware of, but the fact that dogs can act, in some manner, as though they have an internal compass is just as fascinating.

Previous studies have found that cattle, deer and foxes sometimes align their bodies with respect to the magnetic field. Sensitivity to the Earth’s magnetic field has previously been demonstrated in species that migrate such as birds and whales, and also in honey bees, whose navigational abilities are legendary.

Of course, people have long asserted that dogs can find their way exceptionally well, and I’ve even known people who said that it was like their dogs had internal compasses. Finding out that dogs can in fact sense the Earth’s magnetic field, just as compasses can, makes their navigational abilities perhaps more understandable, but no less extraordinary. It was in part dogs’ remarkable homing abilities that made the researchers suspect that dogs might be sensitive to the Earth’s magnetic field in the first place.

Why dogs are choosing to orient themselves in this way is the big question, and hopefully future research will pursue it. I look forward to seeing research on that subject as well as experiments investigating other canine behaviors that may be influenced by the Earth’s magnetic field.

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