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Wellness: Health Care
Canine Rehab Can Help Your Dog Get Back On Her Paws

My career as a physical therapist shifted dramatically 11 years ago after I adopted a dog named Teddy. Teddy came to me with a limp, so naturally, I wanted to help him. The first step was to find out what could be done. Several veterinarians later, the conclusion remained the same: rest and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs). As a licensed physical therapist, I knew there had to be something more; after all, bed rest and medication for the treatment of human conditions had fallen by the wayside decades ago.

After Teddy landed in a vet ER with a horrifying reaction to a prescribed NSAID, I was determined to help him myself. I began by going online to explore the comparative anatomy and biomechanics of canines and humans. During this search, I discovered a whole new avenue I could take to not only help Teddy, but also, to help his species: a canine rehabilitation certification program available for licensed physical therapists and veterinarians.

I enrolled in the program offered by the Canine Rehabilitation Institute (CRI), which is partnered with Colorado State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine. During my course of studies, I gained an appreciation for the differences and similarities in canine and human anatomy. The CRI program confirmed that all the methodology and expertise I had gained in physical therapy school and human clinical practice could transfer nicely to serving our four-legged friends. While there are certainly important differences between the two species, in general, the years of training I undertook to obtain my advanced PT degree proved to be a huge asset to the profession and practice of my animal rehabilitation career.

The goal of animal rehabilitation (aka rehab) is the same as the goal for humans: improve quality of life through restoration of function, increased mobility and reduction of pain. The best way to determine if your dog is a good candidate for rehab is to ask your primary veterinarian. If the vet is unfamiliar with the services these specialized professionals offer, do some research and become better acquainted with your options. Though the specialty practice of animal rehabilitation has been around for nearly two decades in some areas of the world, it is still in its infancy in the United States. Fortunately, the field is rapidly growing.

Rehab can help any dog with a musculoskeletal or neuromuscular problem, from young puppies to seniors. Some of my canine patients participate in agility, flyball, dock diving, rally, and search and rescue. Others are companions who prefer to hang out and get plenty of nap time. Because conservative methods have proven to be successful a high percentage of the time, the rehab therapist makes every effort to help the patient avoid surgery. When surgery cannot be avoided, post-operative rehab has also been shown to be beneficial for a faster reduction of pain and a quicker return to a more fully functional lifestyle.

PT CAN HELP

• Soft tissue sprains and strains

• Post-operative orthopedic recovery from cruciate ligament repairs such tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA)

• Congenital and degenerative joint disease (dysplasia and osteoarthritis)

• Neurological rehabilitation following spinal decompression surgery (hemilaminectomy)

• Other forms of non-operative neurologic insult, such as fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) or spinal cord contusion

Before trying physical therapy with your dog, clear it with your primary veterinarian to ensure that it’s appropriate. There are underlying medical conditions that can rule out PT as an option, so a referral/medical clearance is essential for your dog’s safety.

Your dog’s first visit with a certified canine physical therapist or a rehabilitation veterinarian will involve a fullbody musculoskeletal and neuromuscular evaluation. This specialized, comprehensive, hands-on examination gives the practitioner information needed to develop an individualized treatment plan for your dog’s specific problem(s).

Once the problems have been accurately identified, the practitioner goes to work to address them. A range of approaches is used: skilled manual therapy techniques (joint and soft tissue mobilization), therapeutic strengthening exercises, range of motion/flexibility exercises, and proprioceptive and balance exercises. Additionally, physical agent modalities—“techniques that produce a response in soft tissue through the use of light, water, temperature, sound, or electricity,” according to the California Board of Physical Therapy—may successfully address pain and accelerate healing.

While physical therapy methodology and techniques transfer nicely from the human to the canine patient, canine PT has some important specifics that are beyond the entry-level competencies of human physical therapy programs in the U.S. Similarly, not all veterinary schools include physical rehabilitation as part of their core curriculum. So, finding the right practitioner with the right education is important. Physical rehabilitation rendered by a certified canine physical therapist assistant (PTA) or registered veterinary technician (RVT) is also an option, but these practitioners must be supervised by a qualified PT or DVM with additional training in canine rehabilitation.

State regulatory bodies across the country are currently looking at establishing better laws and regulations to govern this particular specialty. These are needed to allow both non-vet rehabilitation professionals—certified and licensed canine physical therapists—to practice and to determine competency standards for veterinarians.

In California, for example, these regulations have been hotly debated; efforts are being made to allow properly qualified animal physical therapists to practice on their own premises with a veterinary referral. Historically, the California Veterinary Medical Board has wanted to put qualified practitioners under the direct supervision of veterinarians, who may or may not have training in this specialty niche. A legislative task force has been created to work on more appropriate language.

Everyone who’s a consumer of veterinary medical services has a stake in this discussion. Get involved by letting your legislators know that being able to choose a qualified canine physical therapist is important to you. Those who live in California can find out more at caapt.org.

Dog's Life: Humane
Paw Fund: A Compassionate Model for Helping At-Risk Pets.
Pawfund Founder Jill Posner

WHEN A DOG OR CAT is surrendered to a shelter or dies of a disease that could have been prevented, some want to blame the owners. If they couldn’t care for the animal, they should never have gotten it in the first place, right?

But people’s lives can change in an instant; jobs end, children get sick, families lose their homes. A national survey conducted in January 2016 found that six out of 10 Americans couldn’t cover an unexpected $500 car repair or $1,000 medical bill.

That doesn’t leave much slack for the family dog. Paw Fund, a San Francisco Bay Area nonprofit founded five years ago by animal advocate and longtime activist Jill Posener, has very deliberately disconnected from the blame game. Preventable diseases, uncontrolled breeding and overflowing shelters are crises not just for pets and owners, but also, for our communities as a whole. That’s why Paw Fund provides the pets of homeless and low-income residents of Alameda and Contra Costa counties with free vaccinations; free or low-cost spay and neuter; basic wellness care, such as dewormers and flea preventives; and sometimes even nail clipping. The goal is what Posener, Paw Fund’s executive director, calls “harm reduction.”

“The truth is that relatively small interventions can keep dogs and cats healthy, in their existing homes and out of the shelters,” Posener says.

It started in 2011, when an outbreak of canine parvovirus raced through the camps of homeless youths in People’s Park in Berkeley. Parvo is easy to prevent, but making sure their pets get a series of vaccinations can be challenging for street kids. Posener sprang into action. She recruited a vet tech, loaded vaccines into her car and took the lifesaving shots right to the animals who needed them, week after week, until the epidemic abated. And with that, Paw Fund and its harm-reduction approach was born. People trust Paw Fund to be there for them without judging them, and Paw Fund trusts its clients to truly need its services. “We don’t ask for proof of income,” says Posener. “People feel bad enough when they can’t provide for their pets. We don’t need to rub it in by making them prove they have no money.”

The Paw Fund model seems to work, and it’s catching on. It’s not unusual to find 80 people and up to 150 pets at its monthly open-air clinics in Berkeley, patiently waiting as long as two hours in the sun, rain or Bay Area fog. Since its founding, Paw Fund has provided care to more than 5,000 at-risk dogs and cats, coordinated more than 1,500 free or low-cost spays and neuters, and given more than 10,000 free vaccinations at its monthly clinics and pop-up clinics in trailer parks and inner-city neighborhoods across the East Bay. It also mentored two startup organizations with similar goals in Brentwood and Oakland that are now self-sustaining.

Traditional rescue per se isn’t Paw Fund’s primary mission, but sometimes, people beg to surrender a basket of puppies or kittens. When that happens, Paw Fund often persuades the owners to spay or neuter the parents, and picks up the tab.

Many people want to have their pets sterilized but literally can’t make it to the vet appointment. They may be afraid to take time off from work, or don’t have a driver’s license, or live under a freeway overpass. Paw Fund volunteers will pick up a dog or cat at the crack of dawn and deliver the animal back after the procedure. That kind of block-by-block, pet-by-pet outreach led the City of Berkeley to award Paw Fund the contract to run its free spay/neuter program in 2016 and then to extend the contract into 2017.

Paw Fund, a 501(c)(3) based in Emeryville, Calif., is staffed largely by volunteers; vets, vet techs and even a tax preparer work pro bono. In 2017, plans include hiring a part-time medical director to oversee clinics and to make home visits and treatment possible, including humane euthanasia at home. Because, no matter how rich or poor their people are, every pet deserves to live as healthy a life as possible and then to go peacefully when the time comes.

To learn more visit pawfund.org

Wellness: Health Care
Watch for Thanksgiving Sneak Attacks
Fatty turkey trimmings can set the stage for pancreatitis

Next week is Thanksgiving, and for many families this means the tradition of spending the day preparing and enjoying a delicious turkey dinner with all of the trimmings. Us humans are not the only ones who look forward to this meal, and I see many dogs in the ER after they have decided to help themselves to a serving or two. While our pets may find this to be an initially satisfying (albeit naughty) indulgence, it can set them up for the development of pancreatitis, a potentially life-threatening disease.

What is the job of the pancreas?

The pancreas is an organ that sits cozily just under the stomach and along the first part of the small intestine. The pancreas is all about secretion and it has two main jobs. The first is the secretion of digestive enzymes to help break down food, and the second is the secretion of insulin and glucagon (to regulate sugar metabolism). The digestive enzymes are the part of the story that concerns us in pancreatitis.

Just what is pancreatitis?

Put simply, pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that disrupts its normal integrity. Digestive enzymes that are normally safely stored are released prematurely, beginning to digest the body itself, and the result can be a metabolic catastrophe. As the tissue becomes further inflamed, the damage begins to involve its next-door neighbor, the liver. Toxins released from this progressive party of tissue destruction can circulate more broadly, causing a body-wide inflammatory response. If the pancreas is severely affected, its ability to produce insulin can be affected and diabetes can result.

The good news is that most commonly the inflammation is confined to the area of the liver and pancreas, and most pets make a full recovery with support.

What causes pancreatitis?

In most cases, we never find out what causes it but we do know some events that trigger it. These can include:

  • Dietary “indiscretion” and ingestion of highly fatty foods (such as eating all the meat, skin and fat trimmings from the turkey!).
  • Obstruction or “back flow” of the pancreatic duct.
  • Hormonal imbalances including diabetes, hypothyroidism and high calcium levels.
  • Use of certain drugs, chemotherapy and the anti-seizure medication potassium bromide. Exposure to organophosphate insecticides has also been implicated. Steroids have traditionally been thought to be involved but this appears not to be true.
  • Trauma to the pancreas (such as a car accident or even surgical manipulation).
  • A tumor or abscess.

Miniature Schnauzers are predisposed to pancreatitis as they commonly have altered fat metabolisms.

Signs of Pancreatitis

The classical signs are appetite loss, vomiting, diarrhea, painful belly, depressed attitude and fever.

Making the Diagnosis

Until recently, a reliable blood test has been lacking. A new newer generation option called the SPEC cPL (specific canine pancreatic lipase) test has come to be the lab test of choice. For dogs only, the SPEC cPL can be run overnight by a reference lab and is able to detect 83 percent of pancreatitis cases and exclude other possible diseases in 98 percent of cases.

This test should not be confused with the “in-hospital” pancreatic test, which resembles a “pregnancy test” and gives you an answer of “abnormal” or “normal.” I am personally not a huge fan of this test because other disease processes (such as liver or gastrointestinal disease) can cause an “abnormal” result.

Ultrasound detects 68 percent of cases and provides the opportunity to look at other organs. Since pancreatitis can be accompanied by a tumor near the pancreas, ultrasound is an important tool for catching such complicating factors. I discuss and recommend this diagnostic for all patients I suspect have pancreatitis.

Treatment

The passage of food through the intestine is a strong stimulus to the pancreas, which is what we want to avoid. Essentially, we want the pancreas to “rest.” This generally means no food or water for 2 to 3 days (in our very ill patients) using IV fluid support to prevent dehydration. Fluid support generally requires electrolyte supplementation and a critical patient will need 24-hour care with blood-test monitoring several times a day. A plasma transfusion represents a specific type of fluid therapy and may be of great help in severe cases.

Pancreatitis can be a very painful condition and pain management is of utmost importance in recovery and is a cornerstone of treatment. Untreated pain affects the immune system and has been shown to increase death rate. Medications to control nausea are also used. Antibiotics are used because even though pancreatitis is not a bacterial disease, bacterial invasion from the diseased intestine is a common occurrence.

Once the patient has started to eat again, a low-fat diet is important to minimize pancreatic stimulation. Since there is potential for the pancreas to always have a smoldering bit of inflammation, long-term use of a low-fat diet is likely to be recommended.

Pancreatitis can be a very severe disease to experience and treat and I hope this helps raise awareness of a potential source of calamity. Please remember to keep your countertops pet-safe: Take all garbage outside promptly and be extra vigilant of the fact that even the most well behaved pets can be tempted with all of the food festivities.

Here’s to a SAFE, happy and wonderful Thanksgiving!

Dog's Life: Home & Garden
199 Common Poisonous Plants to People and Pets
86 toxic plants to keep away from your dog

While plants and flowers are a great way to decorate, not every plant is safe in a home with pets. Below is a list of 199 common poisonous plants, 86 of which are toxic to dogs, so you can be sure you’re picking the safest choice. The majority are safe to grown in your home, but should be avoided if you’re concerned of accidental ingestion from a curious and/or hungry pup. Look through the list of plant names and make sure no one in your home is at risk. 

 

Infographic by proflowers.com

Wellness: Health Care
The Fine Print in Pet Insurance Policies
Does yours exclude normal dog behavior?

Pet insurance, like most forms of insurance, definitely qualifies as a “Buyer Beware” purchase. Jamie Richardson found that out the hard way when her seven-year old dog Muddy tore a ligament in his leg and her insurance company Petsecure refused to cover his veterinary care. One reason for denying the claim was that Muddy was running when he hurt himself. Specifically, he was happily running through the woods, which can also be described as “being a dog”.

Unfortunately for Richardson, “being a dog” is essentially excluded in her accident policy. The fine print states that any injury sustained while the dog is “jumping, running, slipping, tripping or playing” is not covered. Additionally, any accident that the guardian does not witness is not covered. In Muddy’s case, even if he had torn his ligament in full view of Richardson while he was, say, eating his dinner, none of the $4,200 in veterinary costs would have been reimbursed by the insurance company due to a “pre-existing condition” clause that relates to arthritis or degenerative joint issues.

Though X-rays at the time of surgery showed no signs of arthritis, the fact that the presence of bone spurs had been noted in Muddy’s medical records allows the insurance company to deny the claim. That’s true even though the surgeon said that the accident was not caused by arthritis and the veterinarian pointed out that those bones spurs are normal for seven-year old dogs, and minor to boot. Two vets saying no pre-existing conditions are present does not prevent the insurance company from denying the claim based on the “pre-existing condition” clause.

Richardson has cancelled her policy, since it did her no good at all. She borrowed money to pay her bills, and is now saving a little each month just in case Muddy has another accident or an illness that requires expensive veterinary care. She continues to let him be a dog, though, and he still runs through the woods near her home in Yukon.

Wellness: Health Care
Seven Step DIY Dog Checkup
Learn how to do at-home physical exams
Learn how to do at-home physical exams

To identify a problem or an abnormal situation, you must first be able to recognize what’s normal for your dog. Performing this exam in the comfort of your home when your dog’s in good shape is the best way to do this. Consult your veterinarian if you’re concerned about any exam finding; early recognition can save your dog’s life.

Before you start the exam, take a good look at your dog when she’s just hanging out; observe her posture and general demeanor. Getting a good picture of your dog’s “normal” in a relaxed environment will help you pick up any subtle changes that may occur.

1. Take her temperature. Using a digital rectal thermometer (the ear type is less reliable, and mercury thermometers can break), lubricate the end with petroleum jelly and gently insert it into the rectum, about 1 inch for small dogs and about 2 inches for larger ones. If it does not slide in easily, do not force it. A normal temperature is between 100º and 102.5º F.

2. Check her heart rate by taking her pulse at the femoral artery, which you’ll find on the inside of her thigh; feel for the roll of the artery and a pulsing sensation. Count the number of pulses in 15 seconds and multiply by four. A dog’s pulse rate is highly variable, but generally, normal is 80 to 120 beats per minute. Relaxed, large-breed or athletic dogs tend to have slower rates, while the rate for puppies and small dogs tends to be higher.

3. Start at her head. Nose: smooth, soft and clean, like supple leather (noses aren’t necessarily always cool or moist). Eyes: bright, moist and clear, with pupils equal in size; the whites should be white, with only a few visible blood vessels. Ears: clean and dry, almost odor-free; you should be able to gently massage them without complaint. Mouth: teeth clean and white, gums uniformly pink and moist to the touch.

4. Watch her chest as she breathes. The chest wall should move in and out easily and rhythmically in an effortless way; each breath should look the same as the last. (Unless she’s panting, you should not be able to hear your dog breathe.) A normal resting respiration rate is 15 to 30 breaths per minute; a sleeping or relaxed dog would be near the low end, while an active and engaged dog would be higher. As with heart rates, smaller dogs tend to have a faster resting breathing rate than larger dogs.

5. Examine her skin. One of the body’s major organs and an important indicator of overall health, the skin of a healthy dog is soft and unbroken, with minimal odor and—except for wirehaired breeds—the hair coat is shiny and smooth.

6. Check her hydration with the skin turgor test. Pull the skin over her neck or back into a “tent” and release; it should return quickly to its original position. If it returns slowly, or remains slightly tented, your dog may be dehydrated.

7. Finish up with the torso. Starting just behind the ribs, gently press your hands into your dog’s belly; if she’s just eaten, you may feel an enlargement in the left part of the belly just under the ribs (where the stomach lives), which can be normal. Proceed toward the rear of her body, passing your hands gently over the entire area. Lumps, bumps or masses; signs of discomfort; or distention of the belly warrant further investigation by your vet.

For a more detailed discussion of the in-home exam thebark.com/exam and see Dr. Shea Cox on bridgevs.com

Good Dog: Studies & Research
The Way To Dogs’ Brain Is Through Their Noses
Scent Stimulation
The Way To Dogs’ Brain Is Through Their Noses

It’s a beautiful summer day. You and your dog are walking near a patch of grass when she stops dead, then sniffs … and sniffs … and sniffs. Gently, you tug on the leash, but—muzzle buried in the turf—she braces herself and continues her nosework.

Scent is extremely important to dogs, much more so than to humans. All dogs have smart noses. In fact, MRI studies show that when a dog recognizes the smell of a familiar human, the caudate nucleus in her brain lights up, signaling a happy event.

For the average dog, a small pile of foliage contains a world of information. Though the canine brain is about one-tenth the size of a human brain, its smell center is 40 times larger. We have roughly 5 to 6 million scent receptors, a fraction of the 125 to 300 million available to our canine companions.

Dog’s moist noses are cute, but there’s function behind that soft form. The mucus on a dog’s nose helps capture scent particles; when a dog’s nose is dry, she may lick it to improve reception. Dogs can also wiggle their nostrils independently, thereby detecting the direction of odors. Some, like the Bloodhound, use their ears to direct even more potential scent particles up to their noses.

Despite the fact that the olfactory system is an ancient neurological pathway, we still do not completely understand how it works, either in ourselves or in our dogs. New studies are under way, however; in September 2015, the National Science Foundation (NSF) awarded three interdisciplinary teams of scientists $15 million to “crack the olfactory code” as part of President Obama’s BRAIN initiative. As the NSF web page notes, “Olfaction is critical for the survival of species across the animal kingdom. Yet how the brain processes and identifies odors—and how this information influences behavior— remains, largely, an enigma.”

Though we may not understand it, most of us are aware that scent can influence behavior. In the realm of human holistic treatments, the use of essential oils and herbal fragrances has become increasingly trendy, and yoga teachers will sometimes use aromatic oils during classes.

Exposure to certain herbal or spice scents has been shown to have positive effects on humans. For example, Mark Moss and Lorraine Oliver, working at the Brain Performance and Nutrition Research Centre at Northumbria University in the UK, designed an experiment to investigate the pharmacology of 1,8-cineole, one of the main components of rosemary.

After exposing 20 human subjects to varying levels of 1,8-cineole, the investigators tested their cognitive performance. Speed and accuracy test results showed that the concentration of 1,8-cineole in the blood was related to an individual’s cognitive performance: higher concentrations resulted in increased speed and accuracy. If scent can have positive effects on olfactorychallenged humans, it might be expected to have an even more pronounced effect on dogs.

While research on canines is limited, a study done at the University of Belfast explored the influence of four types of olfactory stimulation (lavender, chamomile, rosemary and peppermint) on the behavior of 55 dogs housed in a rescue shelter. The control condition used no odors other than those arising naturally from the dogs’ environment (e.g., odors from disinfectants and other animals). Using diffusions of essential oils and allowing two days between stimulants, the dogs were exposed to the scents four hours a day for five days.

According to the study, dogs exposed to lavender and chamomile spent more time resting and less time moving than with other olfactory stimuli used in the experiment. These odorants also were found to reduce barking and vocalization in caged animals. On the other hand, fragrances such as rosemary and peppermint were found to encourage significantly more standing, moving and vocalizing.

Shelters are safe but sterile environments, and, recognizing that as an issue, some have looked for ways to enrich those environments for their animals; an increasing number are introducing scent. For example, on its web page, the Humane Society of Miami describes its scent enrichment program, which incorporates essential oils such as lavender, Valor (a blend) and vanilla as well as herbs and spices.

McKamey Animal Center located in Chattanooga, Tenn., is among the few that have been working with scent enrichment for several years, according to Morag Greaney, the center’s adoption and foster supervisor. “I’ve been working there since last August, and they started long before then,” she says. Greaney, who hails from Scotland, was a high school teacher and then worked in canine rescue for nine years before coming to McKamey.

According to Greaney, the scents— which include lavender, peppermint, vanilla and cinnamon—are changed every day. The essential oil is mixed with water, then sprayed on the ground outside each dog’s kennel using nonaerosol methods. While there isn’t an immediate reaction, staff observe that the animals tend to be calmer and more settled the following day. Greaney believes that it is not just a particular scent that makes a difference (although she does find that lavender has a calming effect), but the variety that helps stimulate the dogs’ brains.

The center, which handles upwards of 200 animals, hosts a number of different breeds—Huskies, Labradors, American Staffordshire Terriers and Shepherds among them. While the center hasn’t conducted any formal studies to determine if different breeds are affected differently by the scents, its behavior-assessment team uses lavender to help relax new animals prior to evaluation. Scented dog toys are also used.

Scent enrichment can work at home as well. Greaney remarked that she has used scents with her own dog for more than six years. Rather than using a spray, she says, she rubs her hands with an oil such as eucalyptus, lemon, lavender or geranium and then massages it into her dog’s coat. She says that her German Shepherd, who she describes as “high strung,” is better behaved as a result.

“I would absolutely recommend that dog owners use scents with their animals,” she concluded. However, she cautioned, people should first do some preliminary research and check with their veterinarian to avoid any possible detrimental effects.

Wellness: Healthy Living
Omega-3, a Fatty Acid: Essential for Health

Fats are the major source of energy for dogs, the energy they supply is a more concentrated source (2.5 times) than either protein or carbohydrates. Not only do they supply energy but they also help keep skin and coat healthy, and foot pads supple. Nutritionally, fatty acids aid in the absorption of vitamins because they transport fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, K and E) into the body from the intestine. They also play a role in cell structure and function, including vision and learning abilities. Plus, they make food, both manufactured or homemade, tastier and more palatable. 

Fatty acids are a specific type of polyunsaturated fat and are classified into omega-3s or omega-6s. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are those that the body cannot make for itself, and needs to be supplied daily in the diet, hence they are considered to be essential (this essential status is species-specific). For dogs, the EFAs are omega-3 and omega-6 acids, which are required for them to thrive. In other words, if a body (animal or human) does not receive sufficient amounts of EFAs, critical body functions can be severely disrupted.

While both are important to a diet, it is thought by many nutritionists that commercial pet food (similar to commercial human food) contains too many omega-6s and not enough of the “good fat”, omega-3s. Omega-6s can be found in meat products, egg yolks, whole grains and vegetable oils, while the best source for omega-3s for dogs is cold water fish. Fish oil provides the long-chain omega-3s (EPA and DHA), that are used for metabolism. Another complication is that fatty acids are very unstable and fragile, and tend to oxidize very quickly. They are easily destroyed by heat, light, and oxygen, thus they break down during processing and storage. It is important to note that the only way you can assure that your dog is getting sufficient amounts of EFAs is to either provide fish, such as mackerel, sardines, tuna, salmon, etc., in their diets or add an EFA supplement yourself. If using a supplement, ideally it should be guaranteed-fresh source packaged in an oxygen-free container, such as soft gel capsules that prohibit air from contacting the oil.

Composition and sources of Omega-3 fatty acids:

- EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid) cold water fish and their oil.

- DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) cold water fish and their oil, eggs from chickens fed omega-3.

- ALA (Alpha-linolenic acid) found in flaxseed oil, canola, soy beans, navy or kidney beans and walnut oils, plus green leafy veggies. 

It is important to note that, unlike humans, dogs cannot convert ALA to the all-important EPA and DHA, so plant oils are not an ideal source of omega-3s for them. ALA from plant foods are often the primary sources of omega-3 found in dog food. While they are still important, this does mean that your dog’s diet may be lacking in EPA and DHA, causing them to miss out on certain health benefits. 

Composition and sources of Omega-6 fatty acids:

- LA (Linoleic acid) that can be found in corn, canola, safflower, sunflower oils, whole grain and body fat of poultry.

- GLA (Gamma linolenic acid) in black current seed oil, borage oil and evening primrose oil.

- AA (Arachidonice acid) found in the body fat of poultry, lean meat, egg yolks, some fish oils.  

- DGLA (Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid) found in organ meats.

Benefits of Omega-3s:

As many veterinarians, including Karen Becker, DVM, have noted, “omega-3s have tremendous potential to positively impact your pet’s health.” Here’s a list of what omega-3s contribute to a dog’s health and vitality:

- Support normal neural development, cardiovascular and immune systems, healthy reproduction, and skin and coat health.

- Therapeutic benefits and aid in managing chronic inflammatory disorders, like colitis, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, joint pain due to arthritis and allergic skin problems.

- DHA is important for development of a healthy nervous system and proper development of the retina and visual cortex in fetuses and newborn puppies.   

- Manage stress and improvement of brain health and cognitive functioning, especially in senior dogs.

- Support skin and coat health and relieve dry and itchy skin.

- Omega-3s fatty acids have been shown to slow the development and metastasis of certain cancers, while omega-6s have been shown to stimulate tumor development.

- Fish oils have been shown to decrease the levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood.

Not All Fish Oil Is Created Equally

With the rising popularity of fish oil for both the human and canine health, there are many different manufacturers making a variety of claims. So when selecting which omega-3 oil to purchase you need to consider a few factors including, purity, freshness, potency, bio-availability and sustainability.

Purity: The oil must meet international standards for heavy metals, PCBs, dioxins and other contaminants. You need to check with the manufacturer’s Certificate of Analysis (CoA) to receive third-party verification. Many oils come from areas of the ocean that are heavily trafficked and/or polluted by deep sea oil rigs. Make sure you know what part of the world the fish was caught.

Freshness: EFAs are susceptible to oxidation, which turns them rancid. Look for verification about the freshness from the CoA, and for companies that use smaller vessels. Ask how the fish is kept fresh once it is caught, and how long does it take from the “catch” to the processing plant. The product should be available in an oxygen-free container, such as soft gel capsules that prohibit air from contacting the oil. Freshness is measured by oxidation as shown in the CoA’s anisidine and peroxide values, that should be less than 5 meq/kg.

Potency: The oil must contain DHA and EPA. DHA provides most benefits to dogs, so it should exceed the levels of EPA.

Bio-Availability: The oil must be in a natural form not a synthetic triglyceride which many fish oils are.

Sustainability:  Many fish oils are made from fish that are endangered. Choose products made from fish that are certified by organizations such as the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3s (GOED).

It’s important to look for or request a Certificate of Analysis (CoA) from the maker before you buy a fish oil product and if you have any questions, the company should be available to address those in a timely manner. 

Omega-3s and omega-6s are indeed essential fatty acids, not only because they need to be added to a diet, but because they are essential to overall health. However, as they also add calories, attention needs to be given to the overall caloric count that is provided to a dog in both their food and supplementation. Consultation with your veterinarian is also recommended.

Wellness: Health Care
Canine Disease Forecast 2016
Dog Diseases for Summer 2016

As the mom of two young children, I’m always checking the weather forecast. Jacket or sweater? Rain boots or sneakers? As a veterinarian with the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA), I rely on a different forecast, the Companion Animal Parasite Council findings published by my veterinary colleagues, which tracks the intensity of pet diseases from year to year. Here’s what to expect for the remainder of 2016.

HEARTWORM DISEASE FORECAST: STORMY

Veterinarians anticipate a rise in heartworm disease because of the unusual weather pattern created by El Niño. The warmer temperatures and wetter conditions create an ideal breeding environment for mosquitoes. When an infected mosquito bites a dog, the larvae are injected into the dog’s skin. They migrate through the body, finding their way to the large blood vessels of the heart and lungs. There, they mature to the size of cooked spaghetti. These tangled masses of worms can cause heart failure, and even death, if not treated early.

Expect to see cases skyrocket in:

  • Florida
  • The Gulf Coast
  • New Mexico
  • Northern California
  • Northern and western states

Heartworm disease is prevalent in the Lower Mississippi River region and this year it’s expected to spread to:

  • Eastern Missouri
  • Southern Illinois
  • Southern Indiana

All dogs need to be protected from heartworms, even those who rarely venture outside. The one mosquito that flies through your open window and bites your dog just might be infected with heartworm larvae. Preventives are available in the form of pills, topical liquids and injections. All kill the larvae once they enter the bloodstream. The AAHA recommends year-round heartworm prevention.

TICK-BORNE DISEASE FORECAST: PARTIALLY CLOUDY

An infected tick can spread a number of life-threatening diseases when it bites a dog. The most common are Lyme, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis, and their prevalence varies by region. Some dogs with Lyme disease will run a high fever, experience painful joints and exhibit swollen lymph nodes. Others will present no signs at all. Untreated infections can lead to kidney failure and death.

In regions where Lyme has been living comfortably for years, the incidence is expected to rise. These regions include:

  • New York State
  • Northern California
  • West Virginia
  • Western Pennsylvania

Recently, the disease has spread to:

  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Iowa
  • Kentucky

These states may have a higher-than-average occurrence the rest of the year.

Historically, Lyme has thrived in New England, but, oddly enough, the incidence there is expected to fall below normal this year, perhaps because more owners are vaccinating their dogs.

If you live in an area where ticks are abundant, take precautions to keep your dogs safe. Your veterinarian will prescribe a tick preventive in the form of pills, topical liquids or collars. In areas where Lyme disease is prevalent, she may recommend vaccination.

Anaplasmosis causes disruptions in blood clotting, which results in bruising, internal bleeding and nosebleeds. Signs of Lyme disease also present in anaplasmosis.

Anaplasmosis shows moderate to high activity in:

  • New York
  • Pennsylvania
  • West Virginia
  • (Wisconsin and Minnesota show below-normal activity.)

Ehrlichiosis displays signs similar to both Lyme and anaplasmosis along with eye, liver and spleen infections. Above-normal incidence of ehrlichiosis is expected in:

  • Missouri
  • Oklahoma
  • The Southeast
  • Southern California
  • Western Texas
  • (Arkansas will experience a slight reprieve, as ehrlichiosis is expected to be less prevalent than last year.)
CANINE INFLUENZA FORECAST: UNKNOWN

Just like the human flu, canine influenza is spread by one infected dog sneezing or coughing on another. Two strains of canine influenza are present in the U.S. H3N8 has been here for years, but a vaccine has kept it at bay. A new Asian strain, H3N2, hit Chicago last spring, causing a local epidemic; dogs didn’t have a natural immunity to the strain and there was no vaccine. Since then, H3N2 has infected more than 1,000 dogs in more than 25 states. Fortunately, H3N2 vaccines were developed not long after the outbreak, which likely curbed the spread. It’s difficult to predict how the flu season will play out for the rest of the year. With so many dogs on the move with their owners, and not all of them protected by vaccines for the new strain, the disease could spread quickly. If you plan to travel with your dog, visit your veterinarian for a vaccine protocol.

News: Editors
Physical Therapy Helps Paralyzed Dog Recover

Golden Retriever Rocky 3 was hit by a car and sustained a major spinal cord injury, that virtually paralyzed him. Watch how Karen Atlas, MPT, CCRT and her team at HydroPaws in Santa Barbara performed amazing rehabilitation physical therapy on him. Karen also serves as the president of the California Association of Animal Physical Therapists. This is a coalition of animal physical rehabilitation professionals (licensed physical therapists with advanced training/certification in animal rehabilitation) who seek to play a leading role in defining appropriate legislative/regulatory language in California; similar to those states (such as Colorado, Nevada, and Nebraska) who have already successfully regulated this area of animal care. Even now, the California Veterinary Medical Board wants to limit/restrict our access to qualified non-vet rehab therapists and this video is proof of why this coalition disagrees. This inspirational video of Rocky 3 certainly does demonstrate the important work that is performed by these highly skilled professionals.

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