Wellness: Health Care
Learn how to do at-home physical exams
To identify a problem or an abnormal situation, you must first be able to recognize what’s normal for your dog. Performing this exam in the comfort of your home when your dog’s in good shape is the best way to do this. Consult your veterinarian if you’re concerned about any exam finding; early recognition can save your dog’s life.
Before you start the exam, take a good look at your dog when she’s just hanging out; observe her posture and general demeanor. Getting a good picture of your dog’s “normal” in a relaxed environment will help you pick up any subtle changes that may occur.
1. Take her temperature. Using a digital rectal thermometer (the ear type is less reliable, and mercury thermometers can break), lubricate the end with petroleum jelly and gently insert it into the rectum, about 1 inch for small dogs and about 2 inches for larger ones. If it does not slide in easily, do not force it. A normal temperature is between 100º and 102.5º F.
2. Check her heart rate by taking her pulse at the femoral artery, which you’ll find on the inside of her thigh; feel for the roll of the artery and a pulsing sensation. Count the number of pulses in 15 seconds and multiply by four. A dog’s pulse rate is highly variable, but generally, normal is 80 to 120 beats per minute. Relaxed, large-breed or athletic dogs tend to have slower rates, while the rate for puppies and small dogs tends to be higher.
3. Start at her head. Nose: smooth, soft and clean, like supple leather (noses aren’t necessarily always cool or moist). Eyes: bright, moist and clear, with pupils equal in size; the whites should be white, with only a few visible blood vessels. Ears: clean and dry, almost odor-free; you should be able to gently massage them without complaint. Mouth: teeth clean and white, gums uniformly pink and moist to the touch.
4. Watch her chest as she breathes. The chest wall should move in and out easily and rhythmically in an effortless way; each breath should look the same as the last. (Unless she’s panting, you should not be able to hear your dog breathe.) A normal resting respiration rate is 15 to 30 breaths per minute; a sleeping or relaxed dog would be near the low end, while an active and engaged dog would be higher. As with heart rates, smaller dogs tend to have a faster resting breathing rate than larger dogs.
5. Examine her skin. One of the body’s major organs and an important indicator of overall health, the skin of a healthy dog is soft and unbroken, with minimal odor and—except for wirehaired breeds—the hair coat is shiny and smooth.
6. Check her hydration with the skin turgor test. Pull the skin over her neck or back into a “tent” and release; it should return quickly to its original position. If it returns slowly, or remains slightly tented, your dog may be dehydrated.
7. Finish up with the torso. Starting just behind the ribs, gently press your hands into your dog’s belly; if she’s just eaten, you may feel an enlargement in the left part of the belly just under the ribs (where the stomach lives), which can be normal. Proceed toward the rear of her body, passing your hands gently over the entire area. Lumps, bumps or masses; signs of discomfort; or distention of the belly warrant further investigation by your vet.
For a more detailed discussion of the in-home exam thebark.com/exam and see Dr. Shea Cox on bridgevs.com
Dog's Life: Travel
National Conservation Lands
National Conservation Lands protect 32 million acres of this country’s most ecologically rich and culturally significant landscapes. Each is different, not only in terrain but also in history. These lands are made up of National Monuments and National Conservation Areas and similar designations, Wilderness and Wilderness Study Areas, Wild and Scenic Rivers, and National Scenic and Historic Trails.
They are overseen by the Bureau of Land Management and, unlike other public lands, such as those administered by the National Park Service, they have a much more tolerant policy about off-leash dogs.
There are more than 30 sites in the western states in which you and your dog can freely explore. It’s important to note that while dogs need to be on-leash in developed areas and campgrounds, generally, they are not required by law to be leashed in the backcountry. However, in some regions, for their own safety, dogs should be under leash control; hunting and fishing are allowed on most of these lands, more reason to keep the safety of your dog in mind. Be sure to follow the rules at each individual park, and—of course—to pick up and pack out your dog’s waste.
Fall is a great time to visit. For a complete listing of dog-friendly National Conservation Lands, see conservationlands.org
Wellness: Health Care
E-cigarettes, the latest thing in nicotine delivery systems, pose a significant threat to dogs. These devices vaporize a liquid mix of glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine, and flavorings; in states where marijuana is legal, THC may be among the ingredients. The liquid, often called e-juice, comes in flavors such as cinnamon gummy bear, cotton candy and cloudberry, and dogs are attracted to the sweetness.
The ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center includes cigarettes and nicotine on its list of poisonous household products, and warns that e-juice used to recharge device cartridges contains enough nicotine to kill a dog. Symptoms of nicotine poisoning include severe vomiting, depression, an elevated heart rate, decrease in blood pressure, seizures and respiratory failure.
Ahna Brutlag, DVM, MS, DABT, DABVT and associate director of veterinary services at Pet Poison Helpline, says, “We’ve handled cases for pets poisoned by eating traditional cigarettes or tobacco products containing nicotine for many years, but, as the use of e-cigarettes has become more widespread, our call volume for cases involving them has increased considerably.” According to the Pet Poison Helpline, not only are the ingredients dangerous (depending on the dog’s weight and metabolism, symptoms can occur between 15 and 60 minutes after ingestion) but also, the plastic e-cigarette casing and e-juice containers can injure the dog’s mouth.
If you suspect that your dog has consumed these or other poisonous substances, call your vet, local animal hospital or poison hotline immediately.
As the Pet Poison Helpline notes, “Home care is not generally possible with nicotine exposure due to the severity of poisoning, even in small doses.” Keeping these devices and refill containers out of dogs’ reach is always the best course of action.
Dog's Life: Humane
Most Make-A-Wish Foundation requests involve traveling to places like Disney World or Paris, or meeting celebrities. But Anna Getner, a sixth-grader at Middlebrook School in Wilton, Conn., had a different dream in mind.
The 11-year-old, who completed an 821-day long treatment regimen for leukemia earlier this year, told Make- A-Wish Connecticut that she wanted to create a puppy playroom at PAWS, her local animal shelter. She had a very specific vision: a place where dogs would feel comfortable and could meet potential adopters in a pleasant setting. Make-A-Wish worked with local business, volunteers and other supporters eager to help make the space a reality.
Anna’s Dog Park was unveiled in February with a party that included Anna, her friends and family, classmates, teachers, and many others. Norwalk mayor Harry Rilling issued a proclamation celebrating Anna’s generosity and kind spirit.
According to Anna, her rescue pup, Franklin, played a big role in her choice of wishes. She wanted all animals at PAWS to find their forever homes and give others as much joy as Franklin has given her.
Pam Keogh, president of Make-A-Wish Connecticut, says that Anna’s request was a first. The chapter has fulfilled 2,500 wishes in the last 30 years, but Keogh doesn’t know of any quite like Anna’s. Local pet food company Blue Buffalo was so inspired by Anna’s selfless decision that it not only helped fund the project, but also announced that it will donate food to PAWS for life.
Mission accomplished: happy rescue pups and, finally, some joy for a girl who has spent way too much time in a hospital.
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
While beaches are a great place for pets to cool off, get some exercise and play, there are some important precautions to take to keep pets safe, even at beaches designated specifically for dogs. Included below are five of the top beach dangers for dogs, along with tips for keeping your dog safe from Trupanion.
1. Sun burns – You may not realize it, but even dogs can get sun burns. Their noses, bellies, and areas with particularly thinner fur are susceptible to the sun’s hot rays so it’s important to protect your pooch. Provide shade with a beach umbrella and consider dog-friendly sunscreen. (Many sunscreens made for humans can be toxic to dogs. Be sure to avoid sunscreen with mineral Zinc Oxide which can harmful to your pup.) Also consider looking into doggy sun goggles to protect your pooch’s eyes from harmful rays.
2. Salt water – Your pup may be inclined to lap up the salty ocean water if he’s thirsty, but the salt, bacteria and parasites in the water can make them sick. Prevent your dog from drinking salt water by providing plenty of fresh water. It’s also important not to let the salt water dry on their fur since it can irritate their skin. Be sure to give your pup a good rinse off with fresh water when he’s done swimming.
3. Seaweed and sea creatures – While exploring the beach you may come across washed up sea life and other items. Keep a close eye on your dog to prevent him from rolling in or eating anything that could make him sick. Some areas also have higher danger of sea creatures like jellyfish so be sure to keep a close watch on the surrounding waters to keep your pet safe.
4. Hot sand – If the sand is too hot for you to walk barefoot, then it’s too hot for your pup’s paw pads. Save your beach trip for a cooler day or go in the early morning or late evening to avoid the heat.
5. Big waves – Your dog may be a strong swimmer, but large rolling waves can be very dangerous. You might choose to keep your dog on a leash so that he can’t go out too far, or purchase a dog life jacket in case he gets too tired swimming.
News: Guest Posts
Last month Ohio passed a law making it legal for a good samaritan to break their way into a locked vehicle saving a heat-stroked animal. It joins a small list of states—Florida, New York, Tennessee, and Wisconsin—that grant this kind of legal immunity to do-gooders.
While 22 states have laws that specifically make it illegal to leave a dog trapped in a hot car, the actions that a passerby can legally take are less than intuitive. If a woman walking down the street spots a Basset Hound locked in a hot car, she should be able to do whatever necessary to save the pup and not worry about getting sued for breaking a piece of glass. But the “not getting sued” part is where things get tricky.
The nitty-gritty of the law differs from state to state—in some states only an animal control or police officer can break the window; in others, any concerned citizen can do it under pressing circumstances. In New Jersey and West Virginia though, no one, not even animal control, can legally free a dying dog. Even though it is illegal in those states to leave a dog in a hot car, according to the letter of the law anyone who saves the dog could get slapped with criminal charges. It’s time to revisit that one, dear lawmakers.
The idea here is not to go around smashing windows of course, unless it is absolutely necessary. Here is the Humane Society of the U.S. list of the very first steps you should take if you see an animal in distress in a parked car.
That last point brings us to the demystification section of this article. It is important to know the laws in your state. Below is a very simple overview of who can use reasonable force, aka break a window, when they encounter an animal locked inside a hot car. If you live in a state where everyday citizens are granted this action, be sure to click on the “guidelines” link to read about the required steps you must take in order to avoid legal trouble.
*The definition of “Animal” also varies from state to state. Are we talking dogs, cats, or lizards here? All information is current as of June 2016. If you’re in the position of needing to take action and have any questions, consult The Animal Legal Defense Fund
Nobody North Dakota
Law Enforcement or
Animal Control Officer, etc Kentucky
Nobody *The definition of “Animal” also varies from state to state. Are we talking dogs, cats, or lizards here? All information is current as of June 2016. If you’re in the position of needing to take action and have any questions, consult The Animal Legal Defense Fund
A gentle reminder to all of us pet lovers: be vigilant, but don’t be overzealous. We all want what’s best for the animals. Imagine you’re moving across the country with your cat and you leave her in the car with the AC on at a rest stop while you run in to buy her a bottle of water. You return to your car two minutes later to find your window smashed and your terrified kitty in the arms of a total stranger. It goes without saying: this isn’t why these laws exist and it isn’t what we’re going for.
We’re going for social responsibility on all fronts.
Thank you for caring for the animals of all shapes and sizes in our world. Have you had any personal experiences rescuing an animal?
I’ll be keeping an eye on the comments and am looking forward to the conversation!
News: Guest Posts
Having a pet that enjoys spending time in the garden requires a two-pronged security strategy: on the one hand, the garden needs protecting from the pet, but your pet will also need to be protected from the garden. Some plants and fertilizers, for example, can be poisonous – with the latter, it’s best to check the label, but also to cross-reference the contents online. In general, organic fertilizers such as manure, compost, or seaweed are safer, non-toxic options. See this nifty infographic for more dog proofing garden tips.
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Seven ways to carpe the summer diem.
Sure, you could sit around inside with your dog, sweating and complaining about the heat. But why do that when there are so many ways to take advantage of the season’s longer days and warmer weather?
Make your dog a warm-weather flop spot. Look for a shady area in your yard, dig a shallow pit sized to fit your pup, line it with a thin layer of concrete and before the concrete dries, poke holes in it for drainage. Once the concrete has set, fill the pit with playground sand, dampen it and let the fun begin.
Plan a toxin-free and dog-friendly landscape. No snail bait, no cocoa mulch, no lethal plants (check out the ASPCA site for a list of ones to avoid), no chemical fertilizers, no fungicides, no herbicides, no pesticides. Ideal landscaping/hardscaping material doesn’t get too hot, is easy on the paws and— in a perfect world—doesn’t track into the house on fuzzy feet; pea gravel and pavers fill the bill.
Have some good, wet fun—summer’s prime time for water play. A caveat, however: keep an eye on your dog for signs of hyponatremia, aka water intoxication, which can come on fast and is life-threatening. Bone up on the symptoms and make sure your dog takes breaks.
Experiment with a new way to cruise. Rent a dog-friendly camper trailer or houseboat and see the world from a whole new perspective. Some camper rental companies will handle delivery, setup and hauling away; do an online search for a company in your preferred vacation spot. For on-the-water accommodations, check out Houseboating.org.
Take in a drive-in. Remember the al fresco movie experience of yesteryear? Some communities revive this lovely summer tradition, and some even allow you to skip the car and loll on a blanket under the stars. Search for summer + drive-in and see what comes up in your area.
Sign up for summer school and learn new skills or master old ones. Training, agility, herding and freestyle are all on the agenda. Then, there are dog camps—the summer camps of your childhood, but way better. For maximum relaxation, match the activity type and level to your and your dog’s temperaments.
Mark your calendar with “dog days” concerts and sporting events. Special offerings tend to pop up this time of the year, perfect for enjoyment with the pooch.
We know we don’t have to tell you this, but while you’re having fun with the pup, keep safety in mind. Stay out of the sun during the warmest hours, have plenty of water available, dab sunscreen on both yourself and your dog (yes, there are sunscreens for dogs), take lots of well-shaded rest breaks and never, never, never leave your dog in the car. If you’re out walking, listen to what your dog’s telling you; let him rest if he wants to and don’t coax him to go faster. Finally, do your best to avoid areas with foxtails, those sticky, diabolical grass awns (seeds) that burrow into fur and skin and, once well in, don’t come out without surgery. If these wild grasses show up in your yard—which they’re prone to do—pull them out while they’re still green.
Wellness: Health Care
“Sunny and 70” can mean “sunny and deadly”
We have been experiencing idyllic temperatures in Berkeley, Calif., these past couple of weeks—mostly sunny days and mid-70s bliss. Perfect weather for a fun-filled outing with our pets, right? For the most part, the answer is “yes” but these are the kind of days where we have to be extra cautious with our pets. At the veterinary hospital where I practice, I have had three dogs die from heat stoke in the past three weeks. These were not dogs left in unattended cars or as the result of negligent owners. They were really the result of not realizing that “sunny and 70” can mean “sunny and deadly.”
Two of the deaths were Bulldogs, one who played ball for a short 20 minutes outside and the other who went on his “normal daily walk.” The other loss was a Golden Retriever; the owner let him play at the park for an hour with the neighborhood kids, who always loved to spend time with him, such heartbreaking loss for everyone involved.
Many people are unaware of how dogs process heat and how easily they can succumb to heat stroke. Dogs cannot tolerate high temperatures as well as humans because they depend upon rapid breathing (panting) to exchange their warm body air for cooler environmental air. Therefore, when the air temperature is close to body temperature, cooling by rapid breathing is no longer an efficient process, and dogs can succumb to heat stroke in a relatively short time period.
Heatstroke can occur in many conditions that include:
Clinical signs of developing heat stroke:
Heat stroke is an emergency that requires immediate recognition and prompt treatment. A dog’s normal body temperature is 101.5 degrees plus or minus 1 degree Fahrenheit, and any time the body temperature is higher than 105 degrees, a truly life-threatening emergency exists. Initially the pet appears distressed, and will pant excessively and become restless. As the hyperthermia progresses, the pet may drool large amounts of saliva from the nose and/or mouth. The pet may become unsteady on his feet. You may notice the gums turning blue/purple or bright red, which is due to inadequate oxygen.
Severe hyperthermia is a disease that affects nearly every system in the body. Simply lowering the body temperature fails to address the potentially catastrophic events that often accompany this disorder. A pet suffering from hyperthermia should be seen by a veterinarian as soon as possible for appropriate care. There are many life-threatening after affects that happen to a pet’s body following an episode of heat stroke, and early treatment will give your pet the best chance for survival.
What to do:
What NOT to do:
What if I see a pet in distress?
California law now prohibits leaving pets unattended in a vehicle, but I still see this (“grrrrrr”) all of the time. If you do happen see a pet in distress, you can call the local animal control agency, police or 911 for assistance. Any peace officer, humane officer or animal control officer is authorized to take all steps necessary for the removal of an animal from a motor vehicle. I have also made a downloadable flyer for you to print and leave on car windshields if you notice a pet inside of a vehicle. I wanted to create way to educate others instead of just getting worried, upset and frustrated. I know it is just a small gesture, but if it can save one pet’s life, then I’ve done my job with it.
I hope this blog has offered both awareness and education and please feel free to leave questions or comments!
Wellness: Healthy Living
A Seasonal Heads-Up
Spring officially, well, springs forth in late March, but depending on where you live, it might show up earlier, or later. Either way, if you live with companion animals, it comes with a few cautions. Take note …
In the house. Thinking about dealing with a winter’s worth of dust and debris? Think smart about your cleaning products; many are irritating or even toxic for dogs. Invest in eco-friendly products, or make them yourself. (For a passel of cleaning tips as well as other ways to green up your paw print.)
In the driveway. Most often associated with winter, antifreeze poisonings happen in the spring as well. Whether from shade-tree mechanics, unidentified vehicle leaks or even the bases of portable basketball hoops, ethylene glycol–based antifreeze winds up in driveways and streets, where its sweet taste attracts dogs and cats. Even in tiny amounts, it’s been known to cause sudden kidney failure.
In the yard. Slug and snail baits combine an attractant, usually apple meal or some other sweet-smelling base, with an active chemical compound such as metaldehyde to poison whatever swallows the bait. Increased rodent activity also means increased use of rat poison, which is one of the deadliest things your dog can ingest. Keep all of them out of dogs’ reach.
If you’re planting (or replanting), check out the ASPCA’s list of toxic and non-toxic plants. A safe choice trumps a dangerous one, particularly if your dog likes to graze in your garden. Go to aspca.org and enter toxic plants in the search box.
Then there are fertilizers; even organic or natural varieties can be harmful. Blood and bone meal can cause vomiting, diarrhea and pancreatic inflammation. Grass and flower fertilizers can also contain toxic chemicals that may be deadly if ingested.
Out and about. If your dog spent a good chunk of the winter crashed on the couch or eating a few too many sweet potato chews, it’s a good idea to bound gradually into a spring exercise regime. Monitor your pet and start slow. (This is also applies to the human member of the team.)
If your outings take you to your local dog park or over hill and dale, keep an eye out for foxtails—wild grass awns that begin to sprout in abundance in the spring. They’re more obvious later on in the year when they dry out, but they’re also a problem at the green stage. Get Dr. Shea Cox’s take on the problem.
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