Dog's Life: Lifestyle
New study suggests social animals developed larger noggins
Ask a cat lover and a dog lover which species is smarter and you'll get two different answers.
As a dog lover myself, you can guess my opinion, though what do I know, apparently a study in the United Kingdom found that the average cat lover holds a higher education than the canine persuasion! But, smarts aside, the truth is that dogs have larger brains, and not because they’re generally bigger.
A new study by Oxford University shows that canines have larger brains than felines because they are a highly social species. While researchers were mapping the evolutionary history of the brain across more than 500 different mammals, they found that there is a link between the sociality of animals and the size of their brains relative to body size.
The brains of monkeys grew the most over time, followed by horses, dolphins, and dogs. The brains of solitary animals, like cats, grew much more slowly during the same period. The study suggests that social animals may have developed larger brains because group living is challenging--now I can see why humans have such large brains!
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Can implanted identification cause cancer?
Last week, the tragic story of Target the war dog hero sparked a discussion among our readers about microchips and the possible risks. A couple of people asked about the research behind the risk claims, so I decided to explore the topic. This discussion is particularly timely because Merck was recently served with a lawsuit over claims that its HomeAgain microchip caused cancer in a Massachusetts cat named Bulkin.
Unfortunately there are no large-scale, statistically valid experimental studies involving microchip implants in dogs, so we don’t know their long-term safety for sure. However, there have been a handful of studies with laboratory rodents, which is a start.
In six different studies with mice and rats, ranging from 1996 to 2006, it was reported that 0.8 and 10.2 percent of the animals developed malignant tumors around or adjacent to implanted microchips. It’s a wide range, though the majority of studies had a 1-2 percent tumor rate. The studies also had a wide range of sample sizes, which may help account for the variation in findings.
Nonetheless, based on the rodent studies, it does seem like there is a small chance that microchips are linked to malignant tumors. Considering that millions of dogs have microchips, the fact we haven’t seen an epidemic of microchip-related cancer confirms that the percentage is probably very small.
However, as any dog lover knows, statistics mean nothing when your pet is the one affected. The cancer risk has been particularly interesting to me since I'll be adding a new puppy to the family soon and will have to make the microchip decision. Both of my current dogs are micrchipped and it's always given me peace of mind, particularly since they are not allowed to run at USDAA agility trials with their collars on. Knowing the possible risk, I will be sure to monitor the shoulder blade area (where my pups have their microchips) for any changes to the skin.
No form of identification is flawless and none of them is guaranteed to bring your pup home. It’s up to you to weigh the risks and the benefits and decide what is best for your pet.
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Different breeds share structure and movement characteristics
In agility there's a lot of talk about the effect of stride length and size on movement, but a new study has found that there may be less variation in basic structure than previously thought. Martin Fischer and his team at Jena University in Germany set out to determine gait differences between dog breeds and the impact joints have on movement. The research used high-speed 3-D cameras to film over 300 dogs walking on treadmills and continuous x-ray images to capture joint movement.
The study found that the fundamental movement of a Chihuahua and a Great Dane are profoundly similar. There is greater variation between individuals within breeds than between breeds. Selective breeding can change size and leg length, but Fischer’s study showed that we can’t influence basic structure and proportions.
Additionally, the researchers found clear evidence of a greater functionality between the shoulder bone and the upper leg. Unlike humans, the study found that dogs do not achieve their main motion through the movement of joints. Instead the majority of movement comes from the shoulder bone.
Fischer and his team expect that their research will change veterinary textbooks and also influence several other research studies. Another group at Jena University is looking at how amputated dogs compensate for a loss of a limb, which is part of a Europe-wide project to developing robots that are better able to overcome obstacles in unfamiliar environments.
Advancing veterinary care is not just about discovering new treatments or developing new technologies. I think it’s great that research on structure and movement is receiving funding, and not just because I’m involved in agility. Furthering our understanding of fundamental structure will help improve care and quality of life for all injured dogs.
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
New research on canine cognition
A recent study published in the journal Animal Cognition shows that dogs have a hard time “unlearning” certain tasks that they have been trained to do. In Minding the gap: spatial perseveration error in dogs, researchers Britta Osthaus, Donna Marlow and Pippa Ducat demonstrated that dogs who have learned a specific sort of detour behavior have trouble deviating from that behavior once the set up has changed.The researchers trained 50 dogs to go through a gap in a barrier in order to reach their guardians and receive a treat. Approximately 80 percent of the dogs learned this task in just a single trial. After 1 to 4 training trials, the dogs were confronted with a slightly different task. The gap in the barrier was no longer in the original position, but in a clearly visible alternative location along the barrier. When tested with this new task, dogs consistently went to the original position of the gap rather than to the new opening that would allow them to reach their target. This error was made by 46 of the 50 dogs. The more times they had gone through the original gap, the more likely they were to make the error once the gap had been relocated. This study shows that dogs have trouble “unlearning” at least certain sorts of spatial tasks and that they tend to persist with behavior that has led to success in the past, even when the task had changed. The researchers point out that this has implications related to both dog training and to future cognitive studies of dogs.
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
A new study addresses this question
In a recent study in the journal Current Biology, researchers assert that shelter dogs who show behavior indicative of separation distress tend to be pessimistic, compared with more optimistic dogs who are less likely to exhibit separation-related behavior. I’m going to explain briefly how the experiment was conducted and then discuss my concerns with the researchers’ conclusions.In their experiment, 24 shelter dogs were taught that a bowl in one location had food in it, while a bowl in another location was empty. Once the dogs were trained to this paradigm, they were tested to determine whether or not they had a “pessimistic” cognitive bias, or an “optimistic” one. In the test, bowls were placed in locations other than the ones that the dogs had been trained to understand. These ambiguous locations were in the same room as the tests with bowls that had either been empty or containing food during training. The time it took for the dogs to approach the bowls in these new locations was recorded. Dogs who went quickly to bowls in ambiguous locations were regarded as having an optimism that the bowl would contain food, while dogs who were slow to approach the bowl were considered to be pessimistic about the likelihood that the bowl would contain food. In another part of the study, these same dogs were observed to determine how much time they spent exhibited separation-related behavior patterns such as vocalizing, destructive chewing, and inappropriate elimination. The researchers found that “pessimistic” dogs showed more separation-related distress than the “optimistic” dogs, and thus concluded that the negative affective state of these pessimistic dogs is correlated with separation distress. My concern about this study is that I’m not convinced that the time until a dog approaches a bowl in an unknown location indicates optimism versus pessimism. What if degree of curiosity or tendency to fear new things is more relevant, rather than a cognitive decision about the likelihood of food being present? It is even possible that the dogs who were slower to approach the bowls were not as good at generalizing from the learning task or that they spent time considering what to do rather than acting impulsively. Or, perhaps the dogs who were slow to approach the bowls don’t tend to investigate things that are not theirs? (For dogs in home settings, we call this being “well-trained” or “well-behaved.”) The authors say that the results of the experiment were “unlikely to be explained by running speed/motivation, learning ability, or other dog characteristics” but except for running speed, they did not control for them. The researchers have provided evidence that dogs who are slower to approach a bowl in an ambiguous location are more likely to exhibit signs of separation distress, but I don’t think they have made a strong case that they can conclude more than that. They have not demonstrated a correlation between separation related distress and a pessimistic cognitive bias. There are too many other possible explanations that need to be sorted through and tested for such a claim to be convincing.
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Literacy pups help kids develop a love of reading and writing
As a certified Good Dog Foundation therapy team, Nemo and I have visited our local library many times over the years. During these visits, I’ve noticed that the children develop more confidence every time we see them. We’ve even helped one girl overcome her fear of dogs. In today’s world of video games and television, it’s great to see kids get excited about reading and focus their attention on something non-technology related.
A recent study by a University of Alberta researcher, Lori Friesen, found that dogs can help foster a positive effect on children’s love of reading and writing. Friesen’s research assigned two Maltese Poodles, Tango and Sparky, to a second grade classroom in Alberta, Canada. She believes that the second grade is a critical period for developing a love of literacy and that dogs can help motivate children to develop a lifelong habit of reading and writing.
In the study, children signed up for weekly reading or writing sessions with Tango and Sparky. Friesen found that the program eased children’s fear of reading aloud and helped them develop a positive association with reading, writing and even school in general.
One third of the children took their experience with Tango and Sparky outside of the classroom and started reading or writing with their dogs at home. Parents reported that their kids were choosing to read when they previously wouldn’t have and that they were now talking about school at the dinner table for the first time. The children loved reading and writing with the pups so much that parents even noticed an increased motivation to go to school in the morning.
The study’s findings will be published in an upcoming issue of Language & Literacy, although Friesen disagrees with their categorization of her work as “animal–assisted therapy.” Friesen insists that the literacy dog program is not therapy since it is goal-oriented.
No matter what Friesen’s program is called, it’s clear that these literacy dogs are helping kids develop a lifelong love of reading and writing.
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
The standard OFA test may underestimate the risk of hip dysplasia
When we were ready to add a Sheltie to our family, I made sure prospective breeders met a long check list of requirements from socialization to genetic testing. Since Shelties are prone to hip dysplasia, I only considered breeders who screened the parents’ hips. The standard screening model is the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals test, or more commonly known as the OFA.
So I was shocked to find out that the OFA test may not predict hip dysplasia risk as acurantly as once thought. A new study published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association found that the OFA test may be underestimating hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis susceptibility in canines. The research compared the standard OFA test and the University of Pennsivania’s PennHIP screening model with 439 dogs older than two years. They found that 80 percent of dogs judged to be normal by the OFA test would be flagged to be at risk of developing osteoarthritis and hip dysplasia by the PennHIP test.
Furthermore, according to UPenn researchers, even if breeders were to selectively breed only those dogs having OFA-rated "excellent" hips -- the highest ranking -- the study suggests that 52 to 100 percent of offspring, depending on the breed, would be susceptible to hip dysplasia based on the PennHIP test.
Before making any conclusions, I’d like to see an independent study compare the two tests (University of Pennsylvania ran the study on their own screening method, funded by the University, the National Institutes of Health, The Seeing Eye Inc., the Morris Animal Foundation, and Nestle Purina Co.), as well as a long term study. However, if it’s true, the results are alarming considering how many breeders rely on the OFA test to make lineage decisions.
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
New research seeks to understand the stomach
My dog, Nemo, is an expert at getting into the garbage and eating treasures off the street. Fortunately, to date, Nemo’s dietary habits have been fairly innocuous, but eating bad food can easily lead to more serious conditions, like gastrointestinal infections.
Until now identifying canine gastrointestinal disease was difficult because scientists could only culture a small percentage of the bacteria in a dog's gut. And for a long time, diagnosis was further complicated because veterinarians didn’t have any information on what a healthy gut looked like.
Now researchers at the University of Illinois are using DNA pyrosequencing technology to map the canine gastrointestinal system. Having a standard will make it easier to diagnose and fight infections.
For dogs, a balanced and stable microbiota is important for gastrointestinal health, so research in this area can make a big impact on understanding our dogs’ health. With their newfound information, the scientists at the University of Illinois plan to study how diet, medicine, and age affect microbial count. They'll also be looking at the link between human and dog illness. This last topic is of increasing interest as more dogs are considered part of the family.
Nat’l Geo special explores canine evolution
Recently, I had the chance to preview a National Geographic Channel special, And Man Created Dog (airing Sunday, August 8, 9p.m. ET/PT). This show is about canine evolution; one of our favorite topics! I must admit I had trouble with its title (too human-centric) and its diorama-like reenactments that confidently state scientific conjecture as proven fact. There is also too much of a “golly gee” flavor to the narrative for my taste. But mainly, I am disappointed that alternative theories of canine evolution aren’t presented, including one to which we subscribe: co-evolution. It’s possible that wolves shaped us as much as we shaped them. Considering that wolves have been among the leading megafauna predators for millions of years, our ancestors would have had a lot to learn by observing their hunting prowess.Nonetheless, it is interesting and well worth watching. Two of our favorite researchers—UCLA’s Robert Wayne and Barnard’s Alexandra Horowitz—help explain the story, which includes an emphasis on the longevity of the canine/human partnership. Another problem I have with the program is the lack of coverage about how closing breed registry books means that dog breeding (especially in the U.S.) has increased the prevalence of canine diseases and resultant health problems. This is such an important topic—it deserves more coverage (or a whole show unto its own). The program spends much too much time with more “exotic” storylines, such as how Italians train Newfies (and other water dogs) to perform water rescues. Or how Italians use dogs for their truffle hunting—seems as if some producer wanted to spend a paid vacation in Italy, perhaps. Among the most poignant pieces of evidence for the long term association of “us” and dogs is an archeological finding from Chauvet Cave in Southern France: two sets of footprints—those of a dog (which are different than a wolf’s) and a young child—embedded close together in the fossilized mud of the cave floor. The propinquity of the two left no doubt that a prehistoric child and his dog were in that cave together 26,000 years ago! That is, in itself, worth tuning in for.
Meet a therapy dog named Tuesday, who helps an Iraq veteran suffering from PTSD in this clip from And Man Created Dog.
News: Guest Posts
For study of canine compulsive behavior
The Animal Behavior Clinic at Tufts University is currently enrolling:Terriers (except Bull breeds) German Shepherds Border Collies into a study regarding the genetic underpinnings of compulsive behavior. Dogs that are affected and unaffected are needed. You will be required to fill out a survey about your dog’s behavior and a blood sample will be taken. A visit to Tufts is not required. If you are interested in learning more about this study, please contact Nicole Cottam at 508-887-4802 or email@example.com.
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