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Alexandra Horowitz, The Canine Mindseeker

AH: The shorthand is usually a component of the play signal. The play bow involves bringing the forelegs down and the rump up—so, a shorthand version of that is what I call a “play slap”: just bending down on the front legs, usually with an audible slap. Similarly, many signals involve an open, almost grinning-looking mouth; as shorthand, a dog can do a very short open-mouth display with another dog. If you know the components of the signals, you can see how dogs break them up to use with their regular playmates.

B: In regard to your statement that dogs don’t hunt cooperatively—since dogs evolved from wolves, who do hunt cooperatively, it would seem that dogs would, too.

AH: You make a great point. Some dogs may hunt together—and dogs definitely act cooperatively with each other in many settings, including play. My point is a little different, however. What I wanted to emphasize was that typical dog behavior has changed considerably from typical wolf behavior in numerous ways. The studies on which I base my statement were on free-ranging (stray) dogs who need to hunt or scavenge to eat; researchers found that the dogs did not hunt together cooperatively, as we see in wolves. These groups are perhaps the closest model that we have of what is natural social behavior for dogs unmodified by the immediate presence of humans. Dogs bred for hunting may also act very differently, of course, than mixed breeds.

B: Pointers can “honor” the point of another dog while hunting—a truly amazing thing to see. Mark Neff at UC Davis is collecting evidence of the genetic basis of this behavior. Are you familiar with this behavior?

AH: Following another dog’s hunting point is very consistent with all the recent experimental research showing that dogs are quite good at following dogs and humans who indicate (by pointing or looking) where a hidden toy or food is. This may seem obvious to some dog owners, but to psychologists, it is quite meaningful that dogs follow points; most non-human animals don’t seem to use pointing as an informational cue. It is also a testament to the quality of the experiments that we see this ability in the dogs’ natural lives as well.

B: I was happy that you discussed dogs’ fascination for novel objects (neophilia). But have there been any studies that actually showed this to be true?

AH: Yes. In 2008, Kaulfuss and Mills published a study showing neophilia in dogs. The dogs in their study were given the choice of new or familiar toys, and most preferred the new toys. This doesn’t mean they will always be interested in a new toy; rather, it indicates that dogs have a sense of what is familiar and what is novel, and are curious enough to investigate the novel.

B: How can you tell if your dog feels or is expressing guilt?

AH: It is an open question whether dogs feel guilt, one that we all have our hunches about but that is very hard to confirm empirically. I recently published a study testing whether the “guilty look” that dogs show—ears back, tail down, slinking off or avoiding eye contact—actually indicates that the dog has disobeyed and possibly feels guilty. I found that dogs showed the most guilty look not when they had actually disobeyed, but rather, when they were scolded or confronted by a suspicious owner, even if they had done nothing wrong.

What most dogs do seem to know is that some actions—those that have provoked punishment in the past—are “wrong,” off-limits or at least likely to provoke punishment again. This is not the same as feeling guilt. They may do the guilty look as an entreaty not to be punished.

B: How can you tell if your dog is bored? I know that is one of the biggest concerns of dog lovers.

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Submitted by Michelle Mantonya | November 12 2012 |

Good morning Professor. I am so thankful for people like you! Who bring awareness to animals' mental, emotional and physical abilities. There is so much more to them than people realize.

I am a 49 year young woman and dogs have been a part of my family all of my life.I cannot imagine my life without them in it! I have studied animal behavior and relationships of several species, but mostly dogs. I have no formal education on this subject, just hands on experience and observation over 45 years. It has always been a dream of mine to be part of a study because I have much to offer. I do know that animals' thinking and emotional ability is much like our own.

I enjoyed you and your study on the PBS show, "What Are Animals Thinking". However, I must say that I do not agree with your findings, when you did the "Guilty Look" experiment. When the dog was deceived about taking the treat, I did not see the guilty look. I saw a look of confusion. I believe the dogs were thinking "why are they talking to me in that way when I didn't do anything wrong". In my opinion, it showes that dogs know when and if they've done wrong and not understanding they're human's reaction, which, I believe, falls into the category of them knowing that they, themselves have been wronged. I also believe it shows that they are aware of what type of reaction they deserve and expect, and, when they get one that doesn't apply to the situation. I do hope that you read this and take this into consideration. Thanks again, for all your work.

Thanks for your time and have a good day.

Michelle Mantonya

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