NYC apartment complex resorts to DNA testing.
I'm always mystified as to why people refuse to clean up after their pets. We fight hard for dog friendly places, but in order to keep these privileges, we have to be courteous and respectful.
One Brooklyn Bridge Park, an apartment complex in New York City, is one of the most dog friendly buildings in the area. 175 dogs of different breeds and sizes live among the 440 units, and the ground floor is home to Wag Club, a canine grooming and training service.
You'd think this would foster a sense of community and responsibility among the residents, but for some time the building has been having a problem with people not picking up after their pets. In the winter, the issue was even worse, with residents letting their dogs relieve themselves in the stairwells and hallways during bad weather. In the month of December alone, they found 52 messes on almost every floor of the building, including all five elevators and three lobbies. Not only was it rude and unsanitary, but it was costing the building a lot of money to increase maintenance.
After trying to nudge behavior change with messages and signs, the board resorted to a new tactic. They decided that all dogs in the building must be registered and have their DNA tested so the offenders could be identified.
The new program was met with resistance, as some residents worried that DNA testing could open the gates to a whole host of other problems. One concern was around the potential for being framed. For instance, someone looking for revenge could easily take a poop bag out of the trash and plant faulty evidence.
Others thought the testing might be a precursor to a breed ban. While that wasn't the building's intention, it was a valid concern coming a few months after another New York City apartment building started DNA testing dogs to kick out certain breeds. And still others were opposed because they felt it was a violation of canine privacy since dogs are not capable of consent. But the program went on, with the board only agreeing to lower the registration fee from $75 to $35.
Since One Brooklyn started its DNA testing in May, seven matches have been made with fines of $250. Even better, it's acted as a good deterrent, significantly lowering the number of accidents left behind.
DNA testing may seem extreme, but it's a growing solution to this persistent problem. The company behind the DNA testing product that One Brooklyn is using, Poo Prints, is now being used by more than 1,000 apartment and condominium buildings around the country. And the problem isn't limited to the United States. Last year the city of Naples, Italy also started a genetic testing program to deal with dog waste.
What do you think about DNA testing?
Abby, the Pit Bull, gets a home and Jan gets a best friend
The beautiful brindle and white dog leapt joyfully in the surf, racing and playing with a large group of dogs. Abby’s striking blue eyes mirrored the sky and her sleek, shiny coat glistened in the salt water. She came back periodically to check in with Jan, her adopter, and the two of them had a playful exchange before Abby raced back into the ocean. Abby spends most of her Mondays at the off-leash beach now and the rest of the week cuddling at home, playing, walking with Jan or snoozing on her cushy bed.
It wasn’t always this way for Abby. She was found in an abandoned house, skin and bone and nursing ten puppies. When a Good Samaritan took them to the shelter, her luck changed for the better. She and the pups were treated for fleas, ticks and worms and I took them home to foster. After a few months of good care the pups were adopted and the search began for the perfect home for Abby.
I have fostered hundreds of dogs and Abby is as nice a dog as you could ever find. Mellow but playful, gentle and sweet, and wonderful with dogs, cats, kids, strangers etc. Truly a prize. Someone must have loved her once and I wondered how she fell on hard times. The fact that Abby is was what could loosely be described as a Pit Bull made it more challenging to find a home.
I had been communicating with Jan for a while because she was looking for a dog to adopt. Her Boston Terrier had died a few years previously and she was ready for a new companion. She wanted to adopt a dog in need and had been looking at shelter dogs for a while. She looked at Boston’s and visited with an adorable fluffy little mix breed but nothing was quite the right match. She never planned to adopt a Pit Bull and her husband Mickey didn’t like the idea at all initially. I’ll let Jan tell the story in her own words:
I find it wonderful that Jan adopted the dog that was right for her situation and didn’t let breed prejudices get in the way of finding the perfect companion. I would love for our readers to share how they ended up with a dog that was a breed they never thought they would have.
Recently we reported on the use of genetic testing of dogs in a Manhattan luxury co-op.That time it was used to ferret out the breeds that a co-op board thought unsuitable for its residents, including Basset Hound, St. Bernard, and even Shih Tzu. It even went so far as requiring such testing to detail the percentage of each breed in any mixed dog—a ridiculous expectation because of the unreliability for such current DNA testing.
But now there is another story from New York, or in this case, Brooklyn, that actually focuses attention on the misadventures of the dog guardians themselves. While this story involves DNA testing too, it isn’t to finger breeds, but to identify which dogs were allowed to defecate (and do other messy things) inside of the One Brooklyn Bridge Park condo complex. This condo is one of those few dog friendly ones, even boosting a Wag Club (grooming and training center) on its ground flour. It has 440 units, and it's estimated to also be home to 175 dogs. But, get this, some people have been allowing their dogs to relieve themselves inside the building, on staircases, along hallways and even in elevators! Incredible, isn’t it? Even bad weather can’t justify such discourtesy and lack of common decorum. As was noted in the article:
So the decision was made to have all resident dogs have their DNA registered and kept on file to help to find who was fouling the common area. Do note that this building, where a two-bedroom goes for $2.5 million, is welcoming to dogs, its board president has a Shih Tzu-Poodle mix (that wouldn’t be allowed in that Manhattan co-op), so they clearly understand that mistakes can happen. As was reported:
But certainly enough is enough, so it was decided that more needed to be done. The board went ahead and employed a service called Poo Prints, a subsidiary of a biotech company in Tennessee, which has attracted over 1,000 apartment and condominium buildings around the country to its service. So for the low cost of $35 for such each test and registration—balance that out by the cost of an unit in that building—everyone can hope the soiling will stop and the true culprits are caught. Even though this measure might have an element of shaming in it, it does seem to have helped. Since May when the program started, seven matches were made with fines of $250. And one resident was even caught twice.
What do you think? Any other suggestions of how to get people to act responsibly when it comes to picking up after their dogs? And while allowing your dog to poop inside a building and expecting others to clean up for you seems to be outlandish, there are still those who seem to refuse to pick up after their pups in parks, along trails and sidewalks too. This is the number one problem that communities still have about our dogs, and sadly, it reflects badly on all of us. So would love to come up with creative solutions, do you have any that have worked in your area?
Canada institutes new penalties for killing a police dog or service animal.
Last year a Canadian police dog named Quanto was killed while trying to apprehend a suspect fleeing from police. As a result, Joseph Vukmanich, who stabbed the German Shepherd multiple times, was sentenced to 26 months in prison for animal cruelty, among other charges.
In response to the tragedy, a new federal law called Quanto's Law was created to institute a maximum jail sentence of five years for anyone convicted of intentionally killing a police dog or service animal.
Last week Tim Uppal, the federal minister for multiculturalism, met with Edmonton police officers to officially mark the enactment of the new legislation. They hope the law will send a strong message to anyone that injures an animal in the line of duty. Tim put it succinctly when he said, "They're there to protect us and we should be protecting them."
In the United States we have the Federal Law Enforcement Animal Protection Act, which was introduced in 1999. It states that a conviction of assaulting, maiming, or killing a federal law enforcement animal will result in a fine of at least $1,000 and a maximum of ten years in prison. Since then many states have passed or are considering passing harsher protections. For example, in Georgia, legislation is being considered to make injuring a police canine punishable with ten to twenty years in prison.
What's cool about the Canadian law is that it protects service dogs as well. I hope that other countries and states will take note and expand their laws to include all working pups!
Tools to Groom
For those of us with dogs, summer is a season to be outdoors—early morning walks, afternoons at the lake or beach, weekend camping trips. Life outdoors is great but it has a tendency to follow you home as it attaches to your dog’s coat and paws … burrs, sand, mud and plain old dirt. Having our own pack’s three coats and dozen paws to clean and maintain, we’ve searched out a small arsenal of canine grooming products to help combat the inevitable summer soiling. Here are some of our favorite tools to keep ready in your mudroom, porch or garage … wherever your dog grooming takes place.
The Groom Genie
Messy Mutts Gloves and Chenille Grooming Mitt
Be sure where it comes from
There’s a new concern about fish, and once again, labels won’t clear it up. The hidden ingredient in some pet food is slave labor used to harvest small forage fish like mackerel. A New York Times expose of brutal conditions on Thai fishing ships describes the link to several top brand U.S. pet food companies.
Why not just skip Thai fish? Many would if that information was on the label, as it is with seafood meant for humans. But country of origin doesn’t apply to pet food rules. So where the fish or fishmeal is from isn’t likely to be announced on labels or packages. The difficulty tracking each link in the global seafood supply chain can even leave manufacturers in doubt. The article says bar codes on pet food in some European countries let consumers track Thai seafood to the packaging facilities. But prior to processing, the global supply chain for forage fish, much of which is used for pet and animal feed, is “invisible.”
Given the unsavory news, not to mention the topic of fishing the oceans to extinction, any amount of Thai fish is likely to be too much for many shoppers.
AAFCO, the governing (though not regulatory) body for the pet food industry notes that FDA pet food regulations “focus on product labeling and the ingredients which may be used.” Where those ingredients originate is left out.
That’s why some shoppers look for “alternative” certification labels from organic to Fair Trade, and put their faith in U.S. companies that aim to exceed regulatory standards. For example, Honest Kitchen, which sells human food-grade products, states on its website that suppliers guarantee their statement of country of origin. (Another promise is that no ingredient is from China.) The company is a member of Green America that promotes companies that operate in ways that support workers, communities and the environment.
As for buying dog food with fish sourced from non-Thai waters, some pet food companies do state where the fish is sourced. But many manufacturers have a long way to go to make the process transparent and easy enough for consumers to find their ingredient sourcing. (We highly recommend calling pet food companies and asking for this information to be more readily available!)
Advertising terms like “holistic” (meaning the whole is greater than the sum of the parts) and “biologically appropriate” (referring to meat-content for carnivores) say nothing about origin.
Even pet food regulators admit that pet caretakers “have a right to know what they are feeding their animals.”
So if in doubt where the fish is from, ask the company behind the bag or can. That much—the manufacturer’s name and address—is required on labels.
And some say, why should pet food buyers beware the global supply chain? With some research on a dog’s protein, calcium and other basic needs, it’s more possible than ever to get it right with a home-made diet rich in “human food” or even home-cooked table scraps. In fact, local food waste is a problem with plenty of solutions.
Research finds that one in four dogs at the prestigious show are overweight.
Obesity is a growing epidemic in pets, a condition that can lead to a myriad of health problems. Often when I talk to people about their dogs, they simply don't know how to gauge ideal weight.
Many people assume that show dogs are the healthiest and best representation of their breeds, but recent research found that one in four dogs competing in the prestigious Crufts is overweight. As the U.K.'s national canine show and the world's largest, these pups get a lot of visibility.
The study looked at over 1,000 images of dogs from a span of twelve years at Crufts. The canines were drawn from a pool of pups that placed between first and fifth in their class. After coding and anonymizing the images, a researcher graded the body condition of each dog.
Some breeds were far more likely than others to be assessed as overweight--80 percent of the Pug images, 68 percent of Basset Hounds, and 63 percent of Labradors. Standard Poodles, Border Terriers, Rhodesian Ridgebacks, Hungarian Vizlas, and Dobermanns were the least likely breeds to be assessed as overweight.
Researchers acknowledged that the rate of obesity in the show dogs was still less than the general pet population, but the fact that a quarter were above the ideal weight is still a concern.
They hope that their work will draw attention to the obesity issue and encourage education of owners, breeders, and show judges on how to recognize ideal weight in dogs.
Renting out dogs is a growing business.
Who wouldn't want a group of cute puppies at their next party? Apparently renting dogs for soirees has become a growing business in the last few years. The companies behind this new trend have reported bringing the furry entertainers to birthdays, office events, and even bachelorette parties. But is hiring dogs for parties sending the wrong message?
One such company in Los Angeles, Calif., which has been selling dogs for decades (already a red flag for the welfare of these animals), started offering puppy parties in the 1990s. Business has picked up recently and they expect to do 800 parties this year. The company has around 70 dogs and puppies at any given time, which are rented at $200 an hour for up to ten puppies.
Most of their business is in children's parties, where the puppies and kids sit in a playpen after being taught proper petting technique. I'm glad they have workers supervising and advising on handling, but the scale of this business makes me nervous that the dogs' best interest is not the first priority.
In a different set-up, Provo, Utah's Puppies for Rent has the ultimate goal of getting customers to adopt puppies. Jenna Miller founded the company three years ago after missing her dog while studying at Bringham Young University. Now with three locations near college campuses, Jenna takes unwanted pups (from rescue organizations and owner surrenders), puts them in foster homes, and then rents them out to students by the hour. Afterwards, renters can apply for permanent adoption. Most puppies have gone to forever homes within two months. This model seems better since the interaction is one-on-one and encourages long term adoption.
I'm a bit conflicted on the whole puppy party idea. It can certainly be a way to socialize young pets, while teaching kids how to to safely interact with dogs, but I worry that turning this into a business model can lead to overworked and overwhelmed puppies. Allowing people to rent dogs can also support the idea that caring for a pet isn't a long term commitment.
This concept would be cool if it could be adapted for animal shelters and rescue organizations. Instead of renting a playpen of puppies, parents could have someone from the local shelter come with a dog or two in exchange for a donation. It would be a great opportunity to not only teach kids about the proper way to approach dogs, but to also educate on homeless pets and canine behavior.
What do you think about puppies for hire?
Great news! A small town in Spain, Trigueros del Valle, has become the first to acclaim that dogs and cats are “non-human residents” awarding them equal rights to co-exist alongside their human counterparts. With only a population of 300, Trigueros del Valle, has become the first municipality in Spain to enshrine the rights of “pets” alongside those of their human residents.
Pedro J. Pérez Espinosa, the socialist mayor of the town in the Castilla y León province of Valladolid, introduced the so-called Renedo Declaration to guarantee the rights of dogs and cats as citizens of the town.
“Dogs and cats have been living among us for over a thousand years,” said the mayor after the measure was voted in during a plenary session on Monday. “And the mayor must represent not just the human residents but must also be here for the others.”
The animal bill of rights was approved unanimously by the new town council.
It comprises 13 articles including statements such as “all residents are born equal and have the same right to existence” and “a resident, whether human or non-human, is entitled to respect.”
It also goes on to outline basic tenets against cruelty to animals such as article 9a. that states: “No non-human resident should be exploited for the pleasure or recreation of man,” And article 6b. that states “the abandonment of a non-human resident is a cruel and degrading act.”
Animal charities hailed the move and said they hoped it would be introduced across Spain. "This is a great day for humans and non-human citizens alike," said a statement from animal rights NGO, Rescate 1.
“Today, we are closer as species and we are now more human thanks to the sensitivity and intelligence shown by the people of Trigueros del Valle,” the charity said.
Dog fed blue green algae supplement develops liver problem, report finds
A new report by researchers at U.C. Davis points to the need for oversight of nutrition supplements. The pills and powders fed to pets to boost their health come with no assurance of getting what you pay for—or more than you bargained for, like toxic contaminants.
In this case, a tainted organic algae powder was damaging the liver of an 11 year old Pug, who lost her appetite and was lethargic after several weeks use. The authors say it’s the first documented case of blue-green algae poisoning in a dog caused by a dietary supplement. (Most reports of illness involve dogs exposed to water containing certain blue-green algae toxins.)
Blue green algae supplements are sometimes fed to dogs to relieve arthritis or boost the immune system.
Many consumers believe these products can only be sold if they are safe for use, the authors say. “Unfortunately, the opposite has been demonstrated in several studies showing the contamination of blue-green algae supplements with microcystins.”
With the use of commercial health products on the rise, the risk is growing. While supplements are regulated by the FDA, there are no requirements for proving them safe or effective before marketing. That is, the industry “is largely self-regulated,” the report says.
Toxic blue-green algae blooms occur in Oregon’s Klamath Lake, where supplement manufacturers harvest much of their source material. In 1997, the state became the first to regulate the amount of mycrocystins allowed in supplements.
Adrienne Bautista, the lead researcher on the current report, says in an email that the tests may not catch every problem. The tests many companies use to certify their products are below the 1 ppb Oregon limit are often ELISAs, Bautista says, which mainly detect “the LR congener of microcystin.” But there are more than 100 other congeners likely to have similar modes of action that the tests are “quite poor” at finding. So even if the supplement tests below the 1ppb for this common toxin, others may still be present.
What could lower the risk from these particular supplements is to produce the algae in a lab-like setting, Bautista says. “By harvesting it naturally, you have no control over contamination from other algae.”
The researchers call for stronger oversight of dietary supplements for companion animals, and greater awareness among veterinarians.
With treatment and by stopping the supplement, the Pug made a full recovery.
ResQWalk allows users to track their exercise while benefiting homeless pets.
When I started training for a half marathon last year, I used a fitness app to track my runs. It was encouraging to see the progress I made, increasing my mileage from one to ten miles over a few months. But what if I could keep tabs on my exercise and benefit rescue pets, with minimal additional effort on my part? Seems like a no brainer!
ResQWalk, launched last year by Bailey Schroeder, combines the popularity of fitness apps with the opportunity to help animals, even for those who might not have a lot of time or money to donate. The app is a fun way to tap into what people are already doing.
Inspired by her rescue pup, Charlie, Bailey wanted to create an easy way for people to donate to the animal welfare organizations of their choice. Other apps link donations to walking, but ResQWalk has a lot of additional functionality that make the app more interactive.
Each week ResQWalk announces a donation pool, typically around $2,500, which is funded from an Indiegogo campaign. Users choose a rescue or shelter to walk for before they head out. The distance is recorded in user profiles and is added to each organization's weekly sum. At the end of the week donations are paid out to the rescue and shelters proportionally to the total distance walked.
Similar to fitness apps, users can view their walk history, including time and distance traveled, and the rescues they've supported. The app also has a leaderboard to see which rescues and shelters are racking up the most miles over each week. I hope that they include some runner-specific functions in the future, like recording your average pace. There are a lot of aspiring marathoners that would love to use this app!
Bailey and her team vet each organization that apply to be sure that their mission aligns with theirs. Bailey's next step for ResQWalk is to enlist corporate sponsors to pick up when the Indiegogo funds are done.
This is such a cool way to raise money for shelters!
NFL player sits in a hot vehicle to raise awareness.
There's been a lot of news lately about dogs being left to suffer or die in hot cars. Recently Arizona Cardinals defensive back Tyrann Mathieu took a challenge to sit in a hot car in 90-degree weather to see how long he could handle it. As a dog lover, Tyrann wanted to participate in the test to raise awareness for not leaving pets in cars, no matter how quick the stop.
In the video it's obvious that Tyrann was distressed as the car's temperature reached 120 degrees. He only lasted eight minutes, saying "I couldn't imagine leaving my dog in a car like this."
Tyrann urges people to be responsible when taking pets on trips where they'll have to stay behind in the car--even if the windows are rolled down or if it's a cloudy day.
I hope that this video makes people think twice about leaving dogs in the car, but also wish Tyrann highlighted the danger of hot vehicles even when the temperature isn't excessively high. Many people won't leave pets in the car when it's 90 degrees and sunny, but it's not as obvious that a 70 degree day can heat a vehicle to over 100 degrees in 30 minutes. However, I'm still happy to see Tyrann create some awareness around this topic!
Florida artist is raising awareness for the thousands of rescue pets killed each day.
When Florida artist Mark Barone was looking to adopt a rescue pup, he learned just how overwhelming the situation is at animal shelters across the country. Inspired to raise awareness, he decided to take action through his art. Mark started painting portraits of pets who never made it out of the shelter system alive. He set a goal to paint 5,500 pieces to represent the approximate number of dogs killed at shelters on a daily basis.
The project, called An Act of Dog, wasn't without its challenges. Mark's partner, Marina Dervan, says it was deeply saddening to choose which dogs to pick. She would look at their eyes and connect with their souls, making sure to use a variety of pups--including senior, injured, deaf, and blind dogs.
After completing 4,995 portraits, Mark experienced a major setback when a storm damaged nearly 1,000 paintings. But the massive task finally completed this spring, four years after starting. In the meantime, Act of Dog has become so much more than just an artistic marathon.
There are now two more planned phases of the project. The second is underway, selling prints of the artwork to raise money for shelters and rescue organizations. And they're currently fundraising for the third phase, an exciting showcase of the 5,500 portraits and eleven additional larger paintings which will represent other important issues, such as dog fighting, puppy mills, and animal testing.
The Museum of Compassion is planned as a poignant exhibit and educational platform. The 5,500 individual portraits will come together to make up the Wall of Compassion, collectively making a bold statement about the dogs we lose each day. There will also be a space for conferences and talks on compassion and humane solutions, as well as a learning spot for kids.
Check out their web site for more information on this exciting project!
With summer in full swing, perhaps you’ve not yet made plans for that special getaway—an escape that both you and your canine co-pilot can enjoy equally. We offer up five of our favorite dog-friendly destinations. Each makes a perfect summer getaway for a week or weekend. In our estimation, these places are special.
Bozeman, Montana not only has unforgettable big sky vistas, but ample space for dog outing recreation. Not only does the city boast of a 37-acre off leash dog area at Snowfill Recreation Area, but the county and a volunteer group, Run Dog Run, have just broken ground at Gallatin Regional Park for a new 13-acre dog park with amenities like ponds, diving docks and a dog sports area. The same group is responsible for developing a series of smaller dog parks throughout the whole area. Kudos to them, they know how to get the job done. Bozeman is the gateway to day-trips that will satisfy every level of outdoorsperson (and dog) ranging from mountain hikes to rafting and canoeing, plus world-class fishing. Montanans love their dogs, and see nothing unusual about including them in just about everything they do—outdoor adventures, dining, socializing—you’ll find dogs at every turn.
Asheville, North Carolina, offers a unique take on southern hospitality—mixing traditional and bohemian cultures into something special. Summertime brings a lively mix of music and arts festivals, a handful of which are dog-friendly. A host of the city’s al fresco dining areas welcome dogs, as do many of the area’s nearly two dozen microbreweries. Even some of its farmers’ markets are canine-friendly. At nearby Pisgah National Forest dogs can be unfettered by leashes as they hike through its thousand of acres and their stunning waterfalls. In the nearby town of Brevard book at stay at DogWoods Retreat surrounded by broadleaf forests and with easy access to the unforgettable Blue Ridge Parkway.
Seattle, Washington offers a little of everything: cultural attractions, great local fare and untrampled wilderness a car (or ferry) ride away, all in a still manageable urban setting. While Seattle’s sometime chilly embrace of strangers known as the infamous “Seattle freeze” survives—they do love dogs. The city’s dog-friendly amenities reflect the statistic that shows that there are more dogs than children according to the recent census. There are 11 official off-leash areas in the city proper, plus Marymoor Park, the 40-acre off-leash paradise with meadows, trails and river access located 20 miles east of the city. Marymoor Park is a must-see to experience how a dedicated dog community can partner with municipal leaders with great success. Seattle claims 45 pet-friendly hotels, 150 pet-friendly restaurants where one can dine outside with a pup, plus loads of special doggie events ranging from ice cream socials to Dogtoberfest plus an outdoor movie series that welcomes dogs. While Seattle’s leash laws are strictly enforced, much of the city is dog-friendly, so whether you are shopping, dining or sightseeing … chances are your pooch can tag along.
Marymoor Off-Leash Area outside of Seattle is one of the finest municipal facilities in the country (left); Sonny, an official Canine Ambassador at the Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise, near Banff, Canada (right).
Minneapolis, Minnesota or the “City of Lakes” has much to offer visitors, and not just those that love the water. It’s vibrant art scene includes the Guthrie Theater and the Walker Art Center, two venerable cultural institutions. Still, the canines in your pack will be more interested in the city’s seven dog parks, our favorite being Minnehaha Falls Dog Park nestled along the Mississippi River with water access and acres of woods to roam. Check out the nearby 53-foot waterfall and surrounding limestone bluffs. For nearby day trips, head in just about any direction to enjoy a canoe or kayak trip with your dog. The nearby Cannon and St. Croix Rivers are scenic and relatively easy, though start early to avoid the tubers. For serious canoers and kayakers, the trek north (4+ hours) to Superior National Forest and Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness will provide you and your co-pilot an outdoor experience of a lifetime.
Banff, nestled in the Canadian Rockies, provides an awe-inspiring outdoor experience with its majestic peaks, dense forests and scattered valleys, rivers and lakes. It is a popular tourist destination, so if you and your pup are seeking solitude … search elsewhere. The first-class amenities do make up for the crowds, and it’s not that difficult to locate an unbeaten path. Dogs are welcome at Banff National Park and nearby Jasper National Park, Canadian National Parks are significantly more canine-friendly than their American counterparts. Lake Louise, Lake Agnes, Lake Minnewanka—all offer incredible views and boating of every kind (even the commercial scenic tours are dog-friendly). As for those first-class accommodations—splurge and stay at the historic Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise hotel, old-style luxury that welcomes four-footed guests.
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