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Service Dogs for Diabetics
Hypoglycemia-detecting canines provide a safety net


Destiny, a small black Retriever, insistently nudged Breanne, her person, who was sleeping soundly. Over and over, she pushed her warm snout into Breanne’s face, finally jolting her into wakefulness with bristly whiskers and a wet tongue. Breanne has Type 1 diabetes, and Destiny alerted her to the fact that her blood sugar levels were plummeting into dangerous territory. This special pup represents the newest “breed” of service dogs, one who detects hypoglycemia and offers hope, freedom and better health to those with Type 1 diabetes.


Breanne Harris is a 22-year-old student at UC Davis and has lived with Type 1 diabetes since she was four. In those with Type 1 (sometimes called “juvenile”) diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t produce insulin, a hormone that regulates the conversion of glucose (blood sugar) into energy. Instead, the diabetic needs to obtain this vital substance from injections or an insulin pump. Type 1 diabetics walk a perilous tightrope as they juggle food and insulin, aiming for blood sugar readings of between 80 and 150, measured with a tiny, handheld glucose meter.


Many factors influence blood glucose levels. Too much—or not enough—insulin, food or exercise, as well as stress or illness, can easily upset the balance. Sometimes, in spite of the most diligent management, blood sugar runs dangerously high or low for no apparent reason, and this can have serious health consequences. Blood sugar that runs high over an extended period of time can damage vision, organs and limbs, so the diabetic tries to keep blood glucose as close to the “normal” range as possible. But vigilance can inadvertently lead to episodes of hypoglycemia, or “lows,” that result in unconsciousness, seizure, coma and even death; the lower the individual’s blood sugar goes, the less able he or she is to take the steps needed to raise it to a safe level.


Here’s where the hypoglycemia-detecting service dog can make a life-or-death difference. Dogs4Diabetics (D4D), a nonprofit organization based in Concord, Calif., is pioneering cutting-edge work with service dogs trained to alert their people or handlers to impending hypoglycemia. D4D founder Mark Ruefenacht first made the connection between dogs and diabetes eight years ago while training a puppy for Guide Dogs for the Blind.


One night, the puppy’s urgent whining awoke him. Mark, a diabetic, recognized the signs that his blood sugar was dropping rapidly. He also realized that the puppy had somehow detected the impending low. Trained in forensic metrology (the science of measurement), Mark began to explore the possibility of teaching dogs to detect low blood sugar. “We spent the next five years doing a lot of research to figure out how we could start a program,” he explains. “No medical instrument in the world can do what the dogs are doing with their noses.”


D4D dogs are generally career-change dogs from Guide Dogs for the Blind in nearby San Rafael, Calif. The dogs are highly trained by the time they arrive at D4D, and the intensive, specialized instruction they then receive, similar to the training for drug-detecting dogs, is customized to each dog’s learning strength. Without going into specific protocols, trainer Blancette Reynolds describes the “fluidity” that is essential to successful training: “Anything you do with any living creature is fluid, a work in progress. Sometimes I will modify my particular response to reinforce a particular behavior. And the criterion for each dog is a little different; for example, the bar is lower for a new dog.” The dogs’ training is so specific and comprehensive that they learn to expect a reward only after their handler or person has pulled out the glucose meter, tested his or her blood sugar, and gotten something to eat or drink. Only then do they receive that rewarding bit of kibble.




CommentsPost a Comment
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Submitted by Carol | August 18 2012 |

Would like to know more details, cost etc. How would someone go about getting one?

Submitted by Daniela Lopez | August 20 2012 |

Please visit dogs4diabetics.com for more information.

Submitted by paula mount | January 3 2013 |

My daughter is 32and has type 1 diabetes. She has adopted17 kids and given birth to 1 child. She is having problems with lows. Her husband has had to call an EMS twice and there have been many other close calls. How does someone get a dog and what is the price?

Submitted by Susan Bowen | November 16 2013 |

I have had Type 1 diabetes for 42 years. How nice it would be to have an alert dog with me every where I go. Had a wreck in 1997 due to a low and have had to many lows while driving even though I test my blood glucose real often. I would like information on how to get an alert dog and the cost. Thank you.

Submitted by paula mount | January 3 2013 |

My daughter is 32and has type 1 diabetes. She has adopted17 kids and given birth to 1 child. She is having problems with lows. Her husband has had to call an EMS twice and there have been many other close calls. How does someone get a dog and what is the price?

Submitted by David Shoopman | September 23 2013 |

I want to buy a service dog for type 1 diabetes. I live in Greenwood, Indiana. How do I get a service dog like this. Thanks

Submitted by Shelley Lee Hudak | September 8 2014 |

I have been diabetic since I was 10 yrs old and my blood sugar was 1600, since than I have all the toes removed off of my right foot and have a drop foot too. My blood sugars run high most of the time and when the do run normal they feel low. I know most places use labs for this kind of work, but I was interested in a smaller puppy such as a sheltie, do you use them and if so what is your price for a service dog?

Submitted by Anonymous | August 24 2012 |

I am so thankful I found this article. I have been searching for an organization like yours. My boyfriend is 38 and has been insulin dependent diabetic since he was 6. He takes impeccable care of himself but has a very active job and as he has gotten older his blood sugar has gotten harder to stabilize despite checking it at least 7 times a day. We live in Louisiana. Is it possible to apply for a dog there and what is the final cost for one? By the way he would take such great care of one!!! Thanks so much. Sincerely

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