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A broken toe nail can be a painful and potentially expensive injury for our furry friends, and it is something that I often see in the ER. A common scenario is a pet suddenly begins to limp while out playing, and upon closer inspection, an injured nail is seen. Some nails have just a minor crack with some bleeding, while other injuries put a toenail at a 90-degree angle (ouch!). Because they can be painful or have bleeding, a cracked or broken nail may be best treated by a veterinarian. With that being said, it may not necessarily require an urgent trip to the emergency room. A broken nail may be something you can care for at home, or, depending on the degree of injury, it may be reasonable to wait to see your regular veterinarian in the morning.
So, what to do if your pet is suddenly favoring a paw and/or you see bleeding? First, get a good look at the paw—including in between the toes and webbing—to see if it is a cut, foxtail or other foreign object, insect stinger, or (you guessed it) possibly a broken nail. When doing so, be sure to look closely at the nail bed, as I have seen cracks and injuries in the nail that were actually hidden underneath the fur line, where the base of the nail goes into the toe. There are 3 general “types” of nail injuries: one where the nail has been completely broken off and is bleeding, one where the nail is cracked or broken but is loosely attached, and one where the nail is cracked or broken but remains firmly attached.
Usually, the best case scenario is when the nail is fully broken off and some bleeding is noted. In these cases, bleeding is usually mild but can be worrisome if it continues. These are the easiest types of injuries to treat at home as you generally only need to apply pressure with a gauze or clean cloth to the nail to stop the bleeding. The key is to hold pressure for at least 5 to 10 minutes with no “peeking to see” if the bleeding has stopped before this time is up. It is important to keep your pet calm during this time, as excitement increases blood pressure and works against a good clot forming. If bleeding continues despite applied pressure, you can apply styptic powder (such as Kwik Stop) and resume applying pressure for another 5 minutes or so. If you do not have styptic powder at home, sometimes a little baking soda can do the trick. If the bleeding continues despite these measures, then I would go to the ER rather than wait.
If you do happen to find a nail that is very loose and dangling, then you can attempt to remove it at home. It is important to have someone help restrain your pet safely while you gently try to remove the nearly broken off nail with a quick pull motion. Caution: only attempt removal if the nail is very loose! Think “loose wiggly tooth” like when you were a kid. Also, be careful during your inspection or attempt to remove a loose nail as this can cause a sudden and unpleasant pain sensation in which some dogs may nip or bite in surprise. If bleeding is noted following the removal, you can then use some gauze and light pressure, and/or Kwik Stop, as previously discussed.
Lastly, there is the type of broken nail that would ideally be treated by a veterinarian. These are nails that are cracked, continually painful, may be bleeding, and are still firmly attached. Treatment for these stubborn injured nails is typically some form of sedation with pain medication followed by cutting off the damaged nail just above the level of the crack. Sedation is needed because you are cutting through the very thick part of the nail with a live blood vessel and nerve, which is very painful. This is usually followed by styptic powder application and a bandage that is left in place for about 24 hours. The bandage promotes a day of rest so that a solid clot forms and the minor wound does not continue to bleed if it gets bumped on something. Although these types of injuries require professional care, it is something that can wait to be seen the following day if you are unable to get an immediate appointment with your veterinarian (unless your dog seems excessively painful, then I would not wait).
Whatever the type of nail injury, dogs are very good at keeping the area clean all on their own with licking, and antibiotics are not needed. A little licking is OK, and it is what a dog would do “in the wild” to keep it clean. With that being said, some of our babies get a little obsessed, and their good intentions can actually make the area more irritated by their constant worrying at it. Because of this, you should continue to monitor the area for any signs of redness, increased swelling, cloudy discharge, or increasing discomfort. The development of these complications is rare in my experience, but if noted, then an e-collar, pain medications and possibly some antibiotics may be indicated. No matter what kind of damage has occurred to the nail, it will generally regrow normally in all but a few situations. Sometimes the nail will regrow with a slight curve or different pigment, but usually returns to its normal appearance over several months - kind of like when us humans lose a nail.
As always, it is best to seek veterinary care if you are uncertain about the severity of any injury, but hopefully this may save you an unnecessary trip to the ER if this happens to your dog during a weekend while you are out having fun!