Paraphimosis is the inability to retract an extruded penis back into the preputial sheath, which is the skin that covers it. This can quickly turn into an emergency situation, as constriction of blood flow will lead to greater engorgement, necrosis (dying off of the tissue), and potential damage to the urethra.
More common causes of this condition can include chronic licking, sexual excitement, or foreign bodies getting up under the skin. However, there are more serious causes including neurological disease (such as a herniation of a disc in the spinal cord), penis fractures, or muscular issues. Paraphimosis also needs to be differentiated from priapism, which is a state of continuous erection, usually due to a neurological problem.
A diagnosis of paraphimosis is generally based on simple observation of the penis extruded from the prepuce without any physiological reason. Paraphimosis accounts for approximately 7% of penile problems in the dog, and while not common, it can cause distress to pets (and their owners) and can have more serious consequences if left untreated or if it becomes a recurring issue.
Treatment is generally conservative in nature, and many of these interventions can first be tried at home. Here is what you can do if this condition if noted in your pet: