Claudia Kawczynska is The Bark's co-founder and Editor-in-Chief.
Wellness: Food & Nutrition
Q&A with Susan Thixton, authors of Dinner PAWsible.
October 7 2015
Whole food, real food, clean eating: however it’s described, many of us are turning—or returning—to minimally processed, additive-free food made by nature rather than machines. In their newly revised cookbook, Dinner PAWsible, holistic veterinarian Cathy Alinovi and pet food safety advocate Susan Thixton apply that concept to the world of companion animals. They suggest that home-prepared meals incorporating healthy ingredients are eminently do-able alternatives that not only improve our animals’ health but also, are easier on our budgets. Bark recently spoke with the authors.
For years, we’ve been told that variety in a dog’s diet is a bad thing, yet in your cookbook, you encourage it. Why?
We promote variety for pets for the same reason it’s recommended for humans: to provide a balance of vitamins and minerals. Eating different foods from meal to meal helps achieve this.
How should we go about switching our dogs from commercial foods to a diet that incorporates the recipes from your book?
Changing brands of commercial pet food quickly (from one meal to the next) can cause some dogs to have “tummy issues,” aka diarrhea. So, to be safe when making the transition, we recommend switching slowly: for example, one-quarter new (home-prepared) food to three-quarters old (commercial) food for two or three days, half-and-half for another two or three days, and so on. Dogs who’ve been eating real food all along can be switched right over to the recipes we provide.
When preparing meals for our dogs, how can we be sure that the nutrients are bio-available? And, related to this, why is “lightly cooked” better than “thoroughly cooked”?
Remember when commercial cat food was introduced and researchers discovered that taurine had to be added, even though it was made with meat? Taurine, an amino acid [protein’s building blocks] cats require, occurs naturally in meat; however, in the manufacturing process, the meat was overcooked to the point that the taurine broke down and was no longer available as a nutrient.
It’s the same thing with cooking for dogs—if you cook the ever-living daylights out of meat, the nutrients will be degraded, while cooking it lightly leaves more nutrients accessible to the body. Feeding raw meat is also acceptable, but we recommend that people avoid feeding their dogs raw ground meat from the grocery store, as it is often contaminated with bacteria that can be harmful. Vegetables are a bit harder for a dog to digest, which is why we recommend lightly cooking them; if you feel you need to boil veggies, add the cooking water to your dog’s food, as boiling tends to leach the vitamins into the water.
You advise boiling a whole chicken and then using the bones to make a broth that incorporates apple cider vinegar. What’s the advantage of adding vinegar?
Chicken can really be prepared by any method; broiling or baking works great too, and still leaves you with bones you can use to make broth. (Regardless of how you prep your chicken, don’t overcook it. We recommend using a meat thermometer to make certain the meat is cooked to the proper temperature of 165 degrees.) Apple cider vinegar helps leach the minerals from the bones, which gives you bone broth, a powerhouse food source.
Most of your recipes have around 10 to 15 percent fat. Why is fat important for dogs, and do highly active dogs need more?
For dogs—for all mammals, actually—fat is an energy source and provides nutrients necessary for an efficiently functioning nervous system. Some, like working sled dogs, need an amazing number of calories, on the order of 10,000 kcal a day when they’re running at top speed (10 times the amount comparably sized pet dogs require), and fat helps them meet these requirements. While our recipes are designed for pet dogs who are moderately active, they can be modified for higher energetic needs, which also come into play during pregnancy, puppyhood and agility work. We discuss these modifications at the beginning of the book, and we’re available to help individuals with specialized requirements.
Is there such a thing as too much of a good thing when it comes to some ingredients, for example, nuts and seeds? I use a NutriBullet to make drinks for myself and my dogs that include ground hemp, goji, flax and other seeds and nuts. It seems our dogs would also benefit from high-value “smoothies” made with raw leafy veggies, fruits and seeds, moistened with broth or whey. What do you think?
Just like humans, dogs can get too much of a good thing, although it takes repeated daily overeating of one item to cause a problem. Fresh grinding makes rich foods like seeds and nuts—wonderful sources of protein and trace nutrients—more digestible, as well as helps the body access their wonderful omega fatty-acid oils. You can make great pet food add-ins by using a NutriBullet, Vitamix or even a coffee grinder.
Why don’t you advocate a raw diet?
We promote minimally processed food, raw or cooked. Our original concept was to help pet owners new to real food get started, and some are grossed out by the idea of raw meat. We’ve found that as people become more experienced, many do switch to raw foods. On the other hand, some dogs—those who are older or who have particular health problems—cannot comfortably digest raw meat, so cooking it lightly makes sense for them.
You point out that not every meal needs to be complete and balanced. In the overall scheme of things, how important is balance, and how can we be assured that our dogs get all the nutrients they require?
Consider human diets: every meal, every bite, is not 100 percent balanced and complete. But over the course of a few meals with a variety of ingredients, balance is achieved. The same thing works for our dogs: variety fills in any “holes” that may exist in individual recipes. We like the concept of providing balanced nutrition through whole-food ingredients instead of via synthetic supplements (which is what most commercial pet foods use).
October 7 2015
UK trainer Tony Cruse’s book is a good guide to a better understanding of dogs. Addressing behavioral questions such as, “Why does my dog get on the chair the minute I get off it?” Cruse presents the reasons in a charming and straightforward manner, with a nod to the dog’s point of view. In this case, he points out that it doesn’t mean a dog is trying to dominate; more likely, it’s that we’ve warmed the comfy chair and it “clearly is a good place” to be. He also offers training tips such as offering the dog a well-stuffed Kong in another spot in the house, away from the chair. So, if you’ve ever wondered just why your dog does what she does, this delightful read is for you.
Alex Kava talks with The Bark about her newest character, Ryder Creed, and his dogs.
October 6 2015
Alex Kava has been crafting intense murder-and-mayhem-fueled novels for at least 15 years. Fortunately, her heroes—FBI profiler Maggie O’Dell and, most recently, former U.S. Marine and K9 handler Ryder Creed—are up to the task of bringing down the villains. Like many of the authors whose books catch our eye, she writes dogs into the plot, not as afterthoughts but as fully realized characters. Want proof? See her two new books, Breaking Creed and Silent Creed. Bark editor in chief Claudia Kawczynska gets the backstory.
Bark: What inspired your new dog-handler character, Ryder Creed?
Alex Kava: Creed came out of my lifelong fascination with dogs and their capabilities. I’ve loved dogs and followed them around since I was old enough to walk. I wanted to create someone who not only shared my passion but who would be comfortable living in the company of dogs.
B: I confess I was concerned that something bad was going to happen to the dogs, and was relieved that it didn’t. Did you make a conscious decision about this?
AK: I simply can’t read books or watch movies in which animals are hurt or killed, so that was an easy decision. Though Creed’s dogs face dangerous situations, including environmental threats (spiders, snakes, mudslides), the reader can be assured that they will always be okay. I can’t, however, make that promise about their human counterparts.
B: What kind of technical advice or assistance did you get when writing about the dogs’ training and the method Creed uses?
AK: I do a tremendous amount of research for all my novels. For the “Creed” series, it’s been a combination of articles, videos and books (The Cadaver Dog Handbook by Andrew Rebmann is my bible), along with talking to experts. Over the years, I’ve developed a long list of people I can call upon, from homicide detectives and CSI techs to K9 handlers. Their experiences breathe life into my novels. And my veterinarian has helped tremendously; she’s become my go-to source for anything and everything about dogs.
B: It’s refreshing to see an action character like Creed have such concern for his dogs, to the extent of sometimes sleeping with them in their kennel and preparing homemade food for them.
AK: Scout, my 16-year-old dog who sat beside me while I wrote every one of my novels, was dying from kidney disease as I worked on the first “Creed” book. It was a daily ritual to prepare his homemade meals and administer his subcutaneous fluids. For me, it was no different than taking care of a sick child. It’s that way for Creed, too. These dogs aren’t just part of his family—they are his family.
B: Why was it important that the dogs have rescue backgrounds? (Let’s hope that will inspire your readers to adopt shelter/rescue dogs!)
AK: Two reasons: First, I wanted it to be an ongoing theme—Creed rescues dogs, and in return, the dogs rescue Creed, both literally and figuratively. Second, I wanted to highlight that all dogs have amazing capabilities and value, even those who have been abandoned or discarded.
B: As a fan of terriers, I was pleased to see that a JRT, Grace, is one of the featured working-dog characters. What made you decide to use a smaller dog in this role?
AK: I have three West Highland White Terriers, so I love terriers, too. Most people don’t know that smaller dogs can and are trained as working dogs. There are situations where they can get in and out more easily than larger dogs, and in some contexts, they attract less attention. Terriers, in particular, have a lot of energy. Most of them have that all-important intense drive—what Ryder Creed describes as “ball crazy.”
B: Dog-loving readers will be treated to a “two-fer” in these books, since the other protagonist, Maggie O’Dell, who has her own series, is also a dog person. Has she always had dogs? And why did you think of adding dogs to your work?
AK: Maggie did not have dogs in the beginning of the series. As an FBI agent who tracks killers for a living, she deals with evil on a weekly basis, so I wanted to give her something good to bring balance to her life. She rescues a dog—a white Labrador named Harvey—in book number two (Split Second). Later in the series, in Hotwire, a stray German Shepherd, saves Maggie’s life and she ends up adopting him, too. I guess I was creating dogs as heroes even before I meant to.
The third in the “Ryder Creed” series, Reckless Creed, is slated for release in spring 2016, and Before Evil, a new “Maggie O’Dell,” will be out in early 2016.
and all species too
September 25 2015
As proclaimed in the New York Times, Pope Francis is definitely a pope for all species. Like we noted in the past the pope has not only shown compassion and concern for animals but has suggested, underscoring what a previous pontiff had declared, that there is a place in heavens for animals. I’m sure we can all agree that what would a heaven be without dogs. But to see the joyfulness that this spiritual leader greats, acknowledges and blesses dogs is its own blessing. His visit to the White House would of course include a meet and greet with the ebullient pair Bo and Sunny, canine members of the Obama family.
It’s also important to note that in Laudato Si’, his encyclical on the environment that he warned that, “We must forcefully reject the notion that our being created in God’s image and given dominion over the earth justifies absolute domination over other creatures. The Bible has no place for a tyrannical anthropocentrism.” Certainly a strong position on animal right’s! Laudato Si’, translated in English is either as “Be Praised” or “Praised Be,” and is a quotation from a popular prayer of St. Francis of Assisi written in 1224 praising God for the creation of the different creatures and aspects of the Earth. “Be praised, my Lord, through all Your creatures, especially through my lord Brother Sun,” St. Francis wrote in the third stanza of the prayer. He then continued, expressing praise to God for “Sister Moon,” “Brothers Wind and Air,” “Sister Water,” “Brother Fire,” and “Mother Earth.”
As noted by Nicholas Kristof:
Charles Camosy, a Catholic theologian at Fordham University who has written a book about the theology of animal protection, says that Francis’ carefully reviewed encyclical this year constitutes the first authoritative Catholic statements that animals enjoy eternal life.
It was so fitting that this pope took the name of the patron saint of animals, St. Francis of Assisi, and has followed him with humane and enlightened positions. It is wonderful to see him visit our country, spreading his inspiring messages wherever he goes.
Plus brushing tips
September 23 2015
We’ve been hearing from a few readers about why one of the most popular dog toothpastes on the market, seems to have vanished off the shelves, they were hoping we could dig into the cause. Its popularity is such that there have even been reports about one tube of it being offered on e-Bay for $75! We did a quick search at our local stores, thinking perhaps this scarcity was limited to other parts of the country, but our sources were right, there is no C.E.T. to be found anywhere. With ingredients that include glucose oxidase, lactoperoxidase, sorbitol, dicalcium phosphate anhydrous, hydrated silica, glycerine, poultry digest, dextrose, xanthan gum, titanium dioxide, sodium benzoate, potassium thiocyanate, it would be hard to think there could be shortages in any of those substances.
We just got off the phone with a spokesperson from Virbac, the maker of this elusive C.E.T Enzymatic Dog & Cat toothpaste, and he said that this product, along with a few of their others, were undergoing a quality production upgrade, and they started to make it again back in July but it takes a long time to get back into the distribution chain, and will be back on the market within 60 days!
Hopefully for those of you who ran out of C.E.T. you will be using an alternative until that time. But here are some facts to underscore how important tooth brushing can be:
If you are new to brushing your dog’s teeth, keep in mind that with patience and a few positive techniques, you can help your dog be more cooperative. Or as Barbara Royal, DVM told us “If your pet won’t tolerate a toothbrush, wrap a piece of gauze around your finger, then dip it in some flavored dog toothpaste (not human toothpaste—it can be toxic!) or a paste of baking soda and water.” Also check out The American Veterinary Medical Association has an excellent instructional video, see below.
One Man, Thirty Thousand Dogs, and a Million Miles on the Last Hope Highway
September 16 2015
Have you ever wondered what the great migration of southern dogs to new forever homes in the north is all about? Or who’s behind the long-distance transports, how they’re orchestrated or why they’re needed? And, importantly, who to thank? You’ll get answers to these questions, and so much more, in the inspiring and riveting new book, Rescue Road.
This is a must-read for anyone who wants to learn about some of the heroes on the front lines of animal rescue—what inspires them and how, miraculously, they pull it all together. The author, a journalist, was at the winning end of the long line of helping hands that brought his family Albie, a dog from Labs4rescue. Inspired by the process, he decided to look into this south/north rescue movement by focusing on Greg Mahle, long-haul transporter and owner of Rescue Road Trips, who chauffeured Albie up from Louisiana. Mahle is also responsible for uniting 30,000 other dogs with their new families, in what he likes to call their “Gotcha Day.”
Zheutlin first profiled Mahle for Parade magazine, but for the book, he accompanied the driver on a 4,200-mile road trip, during which they transported more than 80 dogs. The expedition starts out in Mahle’s hometown of Zanesville, Ohio, winds down to the Gulf Coast, then back up to the northeast. Along the way, we learn about the amazing rescuers, shelter staff and vets who coordinate with Mahle to get their dogs into his big rig safe and sound as he tries to meet a grueling, precisely timed schedule.
We also meet kind-hearted volunteers in towns like Birmingham, Ala., and Allentown, Pa., where, twice a month, dozens come out to greet the dogs and the transporters. They walk and play with the rescues, clean out crates, and bring both the humans and the dogs goodies to eat. Mahle calls them the “Angels,” and we agree that it’s an apt description. As Mahle modestly notes, “We are all cogs in the wheel of rescue; everyone has a part to play.”
This revelatory and joyous story is sometimes heart-wrenching, particularly when the scale of the challenges and unmet needs of the dogs who are left behind are considered. But it has a vital message, one we hope will inspire many readers to join in however they can to help our nation’s unwanted dogs no matter what part of the country they are from.
And this is a very good thing
September 15 2015
We first learned about the microbiome In “The Secret Life of Germs,” a fascinating article (with a great cover) in the New York Times Magazine. In that article back in 2013, Michael Pollan explored the subject of microbiome—the microbial species as he notes, “with whom I share this body.” The “gut” it seems is all the rage these days. Many writers like Pollan and Mary Roach (author of Gulp) are taking on the subject of bacterial life, many of which resides in our “guts,” and how influential they are to our good health and well-being. There is also a new fascinating book by Dr Robynne Chutkan, The Microbiome Solution, that will be featured in the next issue of Bark (winter 2015), along with an interview with the author.
But back in 2013, Pollan observed that “as a civilization, we’ve just spent the better part of a century doing our unwitting best to wreck the human-associated microbiota with a multifronted war on bacteria and a diet notably detrimental to its well-being.”
From antibiotics (both medicinally and from our foods) and anti-bacterial soaps to our obsession with ridding ourselves of germs and dirt—modern life is destroying our microbial ecosystems—with very harmful results.
It was pointed out that, "This may “predispose us to obesity and a whole range of chronic diseases, as well as some infections.” Also.
Some researchers believe that the alarming increase in autoimmune diseases in the West may owe to a disruption in the ancient relationship between our bodies and their “old friends” — the microbial symbionts with whom we coevolved.
When Pollan pressed the researchers about the best ways to ensure a rich and thriving diversity of microbiome, dogs rank high in their suggestions:
“Some spoke of relaxing the sanitary regime in their homes, encouraging their children to play outside in the dirt and with animals — deliberately increasing their exposure to the great patina.” …
“What about increasing our exposure to bacteria? “There’s a case for dirtying up your diet,” Sonnenburg told me. Yet advising people not to thoroughly wash their produce is probably unwise in a world of pesticide residues. “I view it as a cost-benefit analysis,” Sonnenburg wrote in an e-mail. “Increased exposure to environmental microbes likely decreases chance of many Western diseases, but increases pathogen exposure. Certainly the costs go up as scary antibiotic-resistant bacteria become more prevalent.” So wash your hands in situations when pathogens or toxic chemicals are likely present, but maybe not after petting your dog.”
This underscores the findings from a couple other studies that we also reported on. In these studies researchers looked specifically at how dogs contribute to making children healthier, especially related to respiratory aliments. In one study, conducted in Finland, they found that
Children with dogs at home were healthier overall, had fewer infectious respiratory problems, fewer ear infections and were less likely to require antibiotics. Researchers considered these results supportive of the theory that children who live with dogs during their early years have better resistance throughout childhood. They also found that the effect was greater if the dog spent fewer than six hours inside, possibly because the longer dogs are outdoors, the more dirt they bring inside with them.
And the other conducted by a study team at the University of California, San Francisco found that, “Exposing the gastrointestinal tract to pet dust and other microbes early in life prepares it to respond appropriately to a variety of invaders. But since our modern lifestyles involve living in immaculate houses, our immune systems often overreact instead.” Early childhood is a critical period for developing protection against allergies and asthma, and exposure to pets can help.
Dr. Chutkan also fully endorses the healthful benefits to living with a dog and getting a dog tops her list of "LIve Dirty Lifestyle Dos." Noting too that "children with pets have fewer infections and require fewer antibiotics."
There certainly are many reasons why we consider our relationship with dogs to be mutually beneficial—we provide them with love, mental and physical stimulation, shelter and food. And what research is discovering is that we are only beginning to uncover the extent of the benefits dogs bestow on us.
August 26 2015
This is the 10th anniversary of Katrina, one of the five deadliest hurricanes to hit the U.S. Back then, we were days away from our deadline when we began hearing about the flooding and the desperate situations so many people and their pets were facing. We decided to scrap our lead stories and concentrate on covering Katrina. Fortunately (for us, at least), there were Bark readers and writers in the area, and they shared their on-the-spot perspectives. In the end, one of the big takeaways had to do with the importance of dogs in our lives—and the phrase “Not without my dog” has become a part of the public’s consciousness. In this issue, we reflect on that storm and the hard lessons that were learned in a guest editorial by former NOLA resident Ken Foster. We also meet up with Sally, our 2005 Katrina issue cover girl. She was among the rescued “Katrina dogs” who headed west in the first wave of humanitarian flights. She is also among the lucky ones who went on to inspire their new families—we write about hers, and other survivors’ remarkable stories.
On the feature front, Susan Tasaki makes the case for more research into the possible health benefits that medical cannabis might have for dogs, and Rebecca Wallick introduces us to an amazing volunteer first-responder team whose mission is to help animals in crisis situations. In a new series we hear from dog professionals about their work; we lead off with home-visit veterinarian Melissa Shapiro.
On the new book front we talk with Tracey Stewart (her husband recently retired from a popular Comedy Central news show) about her first book, Do Unto Animals. We also chat with New Yorker’s Maira Kalman about her new illustrated memoir with dogs. Intrigue novelist Alex Kava fields questions about her new series, anchored by a K9 handler with a true love for rescue dogs. Cathy Alinovi, DVM, and Susan Thixton, authors of Dinner PAWsible, promote the value of nutritious homemade meals. Amanda Jones reflects on her new book, Dog Years, which featuring dogs in youth and old age—she also took this issue’s cover photograph. And award-winning photographer, Traer Scott rounds out our “On Book” series with her new work, Finding Home, a tribute to shelter dogs everywhere. This list just hits the high spots, there is quite a lot more that we surely engage your interest and that you’ll be back for more.
P.S. As an added bonus, if you like Greek yogurt, be sure to see my take on how to whip up a batch, and what you can do with the “left behind” whey (here’s a hint: dogs love it).
A Good Herb? Medical cannabis might hold promise for ailing companion animals. By Susan Tasaki
It’s a Dog’s Life
BEHAVIOR: Nice to Meet You—taking the angst out of canine introductions. By Karen B. London, PhD
August 21 2015
A new book, K9 Scent Training by Resi Gerritsen and Ruud Haak, two of the leading specialists in identification, tracking and detection-dog work, provides beginners and pros alike with a handy guide to what you need to know about this fascinating activity. The authors cover the science of odors and how dogs perceive them, and there are step-by-step programs you can follow to help your dog earn her “searching and tracking” stripes. The book is also replete with interesting facts and insights, some of which we’re including here. Even if you don’t aspire to formal detection work, this is a natural activity that all dogs enjoy, and definitely one that will increase your bond with your dog.
• Feet first. What human body part has the most sweat glands per square centimeter and produces the signature odor that dogs use to track us? If you guessed feet, you’re right. They top the odor chart; sebaceous glands on the soles, sides and top secrete fats and cellular debris that, when mixed with bacteria and fatty acids, produce a scent that drives ’em wild. Even shoes don’t hinder transmission of the odor; it penetrates whatever is between it (sock, insole, shoe) and the contact surface (pavement, grass, sand). No matter what we’re doing, our feet produce a constant stream of smell. And, good to know, worn shoes are “especially good at spilling foot odor,” so if you’re thinking of making a quick getaway, get yourself a new pair of sneakers.
• Sex plays a role. According to the authors, when it comes to the sex of the dog and how good the dog is with scent detection, “It has long been known that females have a better sense of smell than males.” So why are K9 officers predominately male? Seems like the females’ smell, especially when in heat, is distracting to their male coworkers. So, while spayed females retain high marks in detection work, the higher pay scale jobs goes to the males.
• Sniff rate. A dog breathes in and out around 15 times per minute when sitting calmly. That frequency goes up to 31 times per minute while walking. But when a dog is actively sniffing, the inhalation/exhalation rate goes up to 140 to 200 times per minute. Hunting dogs and other detector dogs employ a technique called “air scenting”: one very long inhalation (lasting 20 times longer than a normal sniff), followed by an exhalation through the mouth. This transfers a huge volume of scent up their noses into their olfactory epithelium, which is directly responsible for odor detection.
• Humans have the knack, too. While we have far less sniffing talent than dogs, researchers have found that with a little practice, we can get better at odor detection. For example, study participants have been able to detect fear in human sweat as well as pick out our their own T-shirt in a batch of 100 identical shirts. In one study, two-thirds of the participants were able to follow a 33-foot-long scent trail of chocolate oil even though they were blindfolded and wore gloves and earplugs. They did it by smell alone.
It's been good to know yuh
August 6 2015
As at least half of the world knows by now, tonight is Jon Stewart’s final night at the helm of the Daily Show. I must admit that I get choked up just contemplating what we’ll do without him. Accolades, reflections and perhaps some Fox-directed gibes, have been pouring down on him, so it’s hard to add much more. Except that I really want to thank him again, and the writers, producers, staff and all the office dogs, for letting me share one whole day with them in 2012. That will always be one of the highlights of my Bark career. Being invited to “do the Daily Show dogs” was quite the honor for us. And being given free rein to use the show’s set with our photographer KC Bailey, including excited dogs being able to sit in his chair and climb up on to the desk (leaving a few scratches here and there), and then allowing me to trail along for the day, poking into offices, chatting with all the people behind this amazingly creative show, well, you probably can guess it—how much more fun could there be?
Jon Stewart is a man with a big heart and a wise head who gave us endless hours of insightful entertainment and now what might he do? In a recent interview with his wife, Tracey Stewart, whose delightful book, Do Unto Animals comes out in Oct., she let us know that the family is about to grow a little furrier and feathery when they add an animal sanctuary to their New Jersey homestead. She also revealed one of Jon’s secret passions—but you gotta tune into our fall issue to find out what that might be! Let’s also hope that he’ll follow in the footsteps of Sen. Franken—another dog-loving comedian/politico—and make a play for public office. Who knows, there might be a future opening in his state’s governor’s office.
But for now I just want to add our “thanks for the memories” to Jon Stewart for all that he has given us and wish him and his family the best in their next chapter. And yes, the tears are now flowing.
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