JoAnna Lou is a New York City-based researcher, writer and agility enthusiast.
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
New research suggests that canines may have a similar sense to migratory birds.
March 17 2016
On the surface, dogs and birds don't seem like they have much in common. But a group of scientists in Germany may have uncovered an interesting similarity.
Many animals use the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation. The most famous are probably migratory birds, which have been studied extensively, but others with this ability include select insects, fish, reptiles, and mammals.
Scientists attribute birds' magnetic sense to cryptochomes, light-sensitive molecules. Cryptochromes are a class of flavroproteins that are sensitive to blue light. They're involved in the circadian rhythms of plants and animals, and for some species, in the sensing of magnetic fields. Birds have cryptochrome 1a in their eyes' photoreceptors, which are activated by light to react to the magnetic field. But could our pups have this same ability?
Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research have recently detected cryptochrome 1 (the mammal equivalent to the birds' cryptochrome 1a) in the photoreceptors of several mammal species, making it possible that these animals may also have a magnetic sense that is linked to their visual system. Out of 90 mammal species that they looked at, they only found cryptochrome in a few species from the carnivore and primate groups. This included dog-like carnivores, such as dogs, wolves, bears, foxes, and badgers, but not cat-like carnivores, such as cats, lions, and tigers.
It's possible that the cryptochrome could control other functions, like circadian rhythms or help with color perception, but because of their location the researchers believe that this is unlikely. The cryptochrome is located in the blue- to UV-sensitive cone photoreceptors, just like the birds.
There is other evidence that dogs and other similar species can perceive the Earth's magnetic field. For example, foxes are more successful at catching mice when they pounce on them in a north-east direction.
However, this is not to say that the cryptochrome is the only indicator of sensitivity to the Earth's magnetic field. Rodents and bats react to magnetic fields, but don't contain active cryptochrome.
The scientists hope to further explore this finding and discover if dogs do have the ability to sense the Earth's magnetic field.
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
A dog picks up on health problems within a Scottish family.
March 11 2016
Five year old Mark Cannon and his family's Dogue de Bordeaux, Alfie, have been inseparable since birth. And early on, Alfie has always insisted on walking on Mark's right side. Eventually the family had Mark's eyes checked and found that Alfie knew something was wrong all along. A school optometrist diagnosed Mark with astigmatism in his right eye. It turns out that Mark was almost blind in that eye and his parents think that Alfie stood by Mark's right side to act as a guide. The doctors say that Mark could've gone completely blind in both eyes if they didn't catch the condition when they did. Astigmatism can often be corrected when it's caught before the age of seven.
Since then Mark has been wearing an eye patch on his left eye to help strengthen the right one. His vision is getting stronger, but Alfie still walks on Mark's right side. Even if you try to walk Alfie on the other side, he'll push until he can get to his "spot."
Amazingly, this isn't the only time that Alfie helped with a diagnosis. Last August the family noticed that Alfie would sniff and lick the back legs of their other dog, Cass. When they brought her to the veterinarian, Cass was diagnosed with a tumor in her back leg, exactly where Alfie had been sniffing and licking.
Dogs can be quite perceptive, not getting swept up in the hectic rituals of every day life. We just need to make sure to listen to them! Has your pup ever alerted you to a problem?
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
New sport encourages people and their pups to jump, run, and crawl.
March 9 2016
In recent years we've had a surge in new dog sports, such as rally obedience and nosework. It's great to have so many different ways to spend quality time with your pup. Now there's another activity to try!
You may have seen videos online of people doing parkour, a sport typically practiced in urban areas that involves negotiating a complex environment as efficiently as possible. Originally developed as obstacle course training for the French military, parkour includes running, climbing, vaulting, jumping, and rolling.
When Ohio dog trainer Karin Coyne and veterinarian Abigail Curtis picked up parkour as a hobby in 2011, they realized their dogs would love doing this too! Soon they started training their pups to leap onto surfaces, run around obstacles, and crawl under spaces, and eventually began teaching classes. The duo had a diverse mix of students showing that anyone could participate from puppies to older pups. Many fearful dogs even gained confidence through canine parkour.
People from around the world started contacting Karin and Abigail asking about canine parkour, So they founded the International Dog Parkour Association to build the sport. The organization allows people and their pups to earn titles to commemorate new skills no matter where they live. It's up to individuals to teach the behaviors, practice, and then take a video of their dog confidently and safely navigating the obstacles. For example, at the novice level, dogs have to perform three different skills on a given obstacle.
What's cool about canine parkour is that it encourages people and their dogs to interact with the environment. You can practice and build skill almost anywhere!
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Vets are seeing an increase in fractured carnassial teeth.
March 3 2016
My dogs love antler chews. When my Border Collie, Scuttle, was a puppy, it was the only way I could get her to chill while I got chores done around the house (besides using her crate). But recently a friend's pup fractured a tooth on an antler, prompting me to do a little research on these beloved treats. According to United Kingdom based DentalVets, veterinarians have been seeing an increase in fractured carnassial teeth from hard chews, some resulting in surgical extraction or root canal therapy. While fractured teeth aren't uncommon, damage to the carnassial teeth at the back of the mouth is.
This shift has caused some shops to stop stocking hard chews, like antlers and bull horns. Three years ago a group of concerned veterinarians and nurses wrote to the Veterinary Times to spread the word about the potential danger. This sparked a multi-year study on the effect of various types of chews on dog teeth, research that has recently concluded and will be submitted for publication soon.
While many dogs use these chews without problems, if you do give your pups these products, it's important to monitor your dogs' teeth and take them to the veterinarian for their annual checkups. Most pets with tooth fractures don't show any signs of pain, so we have to pay close attention to how our pups use these chews. The American Animal Hospital Association has a helpful article on canine tooth fractures.
According to oral veterinary surgeon, Rachel Perry, many people assume bones and antlers are beneficial because dogs in the wild eat these chews. But we shouldn't assume what animals do in the wild is necessarily safe. Rachel cites a study that looked at the skulls of Wild African Dogs. The scientists found that 41 percent had periodontal disease and 48 percent had broken teeth. So we may not want to follow exactly what these pups are doing!
Rachel recommends two simple tests to determine if a chew is too hard. If you can dig your fingernail in it and make an impression, it's safe. If you can whack your knee with it, and it doesn't hurt, it's okay.
If your dog has suffered dental injury from a chew, DentalVets advocates getting a vet report and reporting the damage to the pet store that you bought the product from. This will create greater awareness
Do your pups like antlers and other hard chews?
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
The Diamondbacks up the ante with its Dog Days of Summer promotion.
March 2 2016
As a New York Mets fan, I distinctly remember how excited I was when they announced their first ever Dog Day at Shea Stadium in 2005. It was a relatively new concept at the time, a night where you could bring your pup to watch the baseball game. Even better, part of the profits went to a local animal shelter. Soon it became a regular promotion at ballparks across the country. Last year, 22 of the 33 Major League Baseball teams had at least one game where they welcomed canine fans. The Pittsburgh Pirates were extremely pet friendly, hosting ten Pup Nights.
But this season the Arizona Diamondbacks are taking the concept to a new level. They just announced that they're teaming up with PetSmart to open all 13 of their Sunday home games to fans and their dogs. Dog Days of Summer will feature a specially created area near left center field with tiered seating to accommodate families and dogs of all kinds and an outdoor/indoor dog park for the pups to explore and run around. The outside portion will be themed with a baseball diamond and grassy outfield and the indoor portion will be air conditioned for relief on hot summer days. This customized area is the first of its kind at a ballpark. Special concessions will also be available, such as canine ice cream topped with kibble, and local shelters will be showcasing dogs for adoption.
Not all dogs will enjoy attending a baseball game with its loud noises, crowds, and stadium seating, but for those who do, it's a great way to spend a night sharing a favorite pastime with your pup.
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Kids gain reading skills while timid dogs acclimatize to people.
February 26 2016
When my Sheltie, Nemo, participated in our local library's reading program, you could see how the kids really opened up in front of the pups. The parents would tell me how these visits helped their children overcome shyness and even fear of dogs. The reading program made the library one of their favorite places!
In December, the Humane Society of Missouri did their own twist on the library programs to help homeless pets. The Shelter Buddies Reading Program lets kids practice reading in a non-judgmental environment, while helping to acclimatize timid or anxious shelter dogs to people.
The program also has an educational aspect. The kids, ages six through 15, go through a training program that teaches them to understand the perspective of pets in a shelter environment and how to read canine body language. The children are then assigned to a dog who they read to and reinforce desired behavior, like giving a treat for coming to the front of the kennel. The kids can bring a book from home or choose one from the shelter's library.
The Humane Society came up with the idea for the program because they wanted to find a way to comfort anxious dogs, while incorporating the many animal loving kids who were looking to volunteer.
Besides making the pups more comfortable, the program has the potential to shorten shelter stays. According to JoEllyn Klepacki, the assistant director of education, dogs that come to the front of the kennel when people walk by are more likely to be adopted. The program has only been in place for two months, but JoEllyn says that the impact has been amazing. Dogs that used to cower in the back of the kennel come up to the front by the end of their reading sessions.
I hope more shelters around the world will implement this mutually beneficial program!
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Insight into the Queen's canine routine.
February 24 2016
Queen Elizabeth's Corgis are arguably the most beloved members of British royalty. Recently Dr. Roger Mugford, an animal psychologist and behavioral therapist who has worked for years with the royal canines, talked about their cushy lives in an interview celebrating the Queen's 90th birthday.
It turns out the Queen has a very specific mealtime ritual for her four pups, Holly, Willow, Candy, and Vulcan. Each of the dogs are fed individually designed menus of steak, rabbit, or chicken, topped with homeopathic and herbal add-ins. The meals are served on silver or porcelain dishes and brought out by a butler. The dogs patiently sit in a semi-circle around the Queen and they're fed in order of seniority.
This feeding ritual made me think of my own pups' routine. I also feed my dogs in order of seniority, but will flip the order if someone barks (usually one of the impatient Shelties!). Whoever barks gets their food last. This only delays their meal by a minute or so, but those are the rules in our house! Good manners trumps seniority.
While our pets may not eat off of silver platters, we may have more in common with the Queen and her dogs than we think. Dr. Mugford had some interesting insights into the Queen's love of animals. He says she has strong views about how dogs should be cared for and doesn't tolerate unkindness. When the Queen talks about her dogs you see a completely different side to her: she relaxes."
The human canine bond is strong, no matter if we're royalty or not!
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
University of Florida study compares shelter breed assessments and DNA tests.
February 19 2016
My local shelter is filled to the brim with homeless bully dogs, but because of the stigma around these breeds, these dogs are often overlooked. It's such a problem that some area rescue groups transport non-bully breeds from the South to make available for adoption.
A recent study at the University of Florida found that shelter pups are often mislabeled as Pit Bulls, which can adversely affect their chances of being adopted. According to Julie Levy, a professor at the school and the lead researcher on the study, animal shelter staff and veterinarians are frequently expected to guess the breed of dogs on appearance alone.
"In the high-stakes world of animal shelters, a dog's life might depend on a potential adopter's momentary glimpse and assumptions about its suitability as a pet. If the shelter staff has labeled the dog as a pit bull, its chances for adoption automatically go down in many shelters."
The researchers evaluated breed assessments of 120 dogs made by 16 staff members, including four veterinarians, across four area shelters. These staff members had at least three years of experience working in a shelter environment. The researchers took blood samples from the dogs, developed DNA profiles, and compared the findings against the staff's initial assessments.
There was a wide range of skill when it came to correctly associating a dog to a predominant breed. Dogs with Pit Bull heritage breed DNA (defined to include the American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, and Staffordshire Bull Terrier), were identified only 33 to 75 percent of the time, depending on the staff member. They also found only a moderate level of agreement among staff members who evaluated the same dogs.
While there's a larger problem at play--changing the unfair perception of bully breeds--inaccurately labeling dogs as Pit Bulls can have significant implications like reduced adoption rates, higher insurance fees, and even exclusion from living in certain cities or buildings. Animal shelters have hundreds of pets come in every month, making it hard to spend more than a few minutes determining a pup's predominant breed. This is no easy feat for overwhelmed rescue organizations. However, this study shows how important the label can be in determining a dogs' fate.
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
Fetch! identifies your pups' breed makeup through new technology.
February 12 2016
A few years ago, consumer canine DNA tests became popular among dog lovers curious about their pets' heritage. Through a cheek swab or blood sample, you could see what interesting mix of breeds your rescue pup was made up of. But for many, the novelty didn't warrant the price tag.
Now there's a free, though less scientific, alternative through an app called Fetch! The program was created by Microsoft Garage, a project lab that lets Microsoft employees work on projects not related to their regular job (it's been compared to Google's famous "20% time" initiative).
Using machine learning technology, Fetch! uses a photo database to classify the makeup of a dog. When you take a picture of your pup, it'll tell you the closest percentage of your dog's breed. If your dog is a mix, you can tap the percentage of see the top five potential breeds. My rescue dog, Scuttle, came up as 99% Border Collie, which I think is accurate, but I tried the app with my friends' pups and they came up mostly Basenji and Chihuahua, which I was doubtful about. However, I can see that the accuracy can very depending on the quality of the photo you use.
If you take a non-dog photo, it will say "No dogs found" and offer a guess as to what it is. I tried a photo of my cat and it successfully identified her as a cat. If you use a photo of a person, it will go into Fetch! Fun mode and put cartoon ears on your head and playfully suggest a breed.
Fetch! uses a technology called deep neural networks to identify subtle of differences in images. According to Mitch Goldberg, a development director at Microsoft Research, this is what makes the app successful. You don't train the algorithm on a particular dog breed. In the training process, you give it a number of images and the computer determines what's unique in each of the photos.
Fetch! should improve over time as users leave feedback on the accuracy of the results. Currently the program is available as an iOS app and through a web site.
Whether it's accurate or not, it's certainly a fun program to try with your pups!
Dog's Life: Lifestyle
A Virginia man faced jail time for failing to bring his dog to the vet.
February 10 2016
Deciding when to say goodbye to a beloved pet is never an easy one. When Travis Evans drove to the Stafford Animal Shelter last July to euthanize his family's Labrador Retriever, Buxton, he never imagined that he would be charged with animal cruelty. However, eleven days after Buxton was euthanized, Travis, still grieving, faced a class one misdemeanor, punishable by up to a year in jail and a $2,500 fine.
The story began in December 2014 when the Evans family noticed a mass on Buxton's front paw. They brought him to a veterinarian who surgically removed the growth, however the procedure revealed that the seven year old pup had terminal cancer. Buxton did pretty well after the surgery until last July when the he had a seizure in the family's kitchen. Travis immediately called their vet office, which was closed, and then local emergency hospital. But by that time Buxton seemed to rebound and was walking around their backyard. Since he seemed to be doing okay, and they already knew about the terminal illness, the family decided not to take Buxton to the emergency vet appointment. But a few days later Buxton collapsed on the floor. Travis then made the decision to euthanize Buxton through the animal shelter.
The animal cruelty case focused on the four day gap between Buxton's first seizure and when Travis brought him in for euthanasia. The Commonwealth's Attorney's Office contends that the family ignored veterinarian recommendations and allowed Buxton to suffer. There's a lot of information missing from this case, so I can see why the charges were later dropped, citing the family wasn't intentionally cruel.
While I understand that the Evans' may have been short on money and felt they already knew Buxton had cancer, but if it were me, I would've brought my dog to the veterinarian immediately following the first seizure. That decision is certainly at the crux of the misdemeanor charge, however it seems like a bit of a slippery slope. The other side of this case is also interesting because the decision of when to euthanize a pet is often a bit subjective. Thinking about one of my past cats, I often think that I let him suffer too long because I didn't want to say goodbye.
I'm glad that Stafford officials seemto be monitoring potential cruelty so closely, but I can see how these charges could be applied inconstantly. I also fear that this case could discourage people from calling the veterinarian, thinking that it could put them on the radar for a possible charge.
How do you think the Evans' family case should have been handled?
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