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News: JoAnna Lou
Ravens Player Sets an Adoption Example
Football star, Ronnie Stanley, requested a "not-so-adoptable" pup at the shelter.
























Some lucky dogs, usually cute puppies, are adopted quickly from animal shelters, while others have to wait years to find a forever home. It's not fair, but sadly the pets that fall into this category are typically older, disabled, or just not as conventionally "cute" as the other pups. Also statistics show that dogs that look remotely like a Pit Bull, or are dark colored, have a harder time being adopted. Fortunately not everyone is willing to overlook these dogs.

Ronnie Stanley, a star player on the Baltimore Ravens football team, set a great example earlier this month when he and his girlfriend decided to add a dog to their family. Not only did they decide to adopt, when they arrived at BARCS animal shelter, Ronnie made a request that shelter workers don't hear that often. Ronnie said they were looking for a dog who had been at the shelter for a long time and was considered "not-so-adoptable." You can imagine the shelter workers were elated!

After meeting several potential pups, Ronnie and his girlfriend decided on Winter, a pup first discovered dehydrated and scared on a vacant property on a hot summer day. Winter has a low hanging belly, most likely from overbreeding, a condition that caused her to be overlooked by most shelter visitors. Ronnie was more interested in getting kisses from his new canine pal.

Ronnie wasn't the only Ravins player at the shelter that day. He also brought along his teammate, Alex Lewis, who ended up helping shelter workers carry heavy bags of pet food while Ronnie was taking his adoption class. Alex has two of his own rescue dogs at home.

I hope others will be inspired by Ronnie and Winter to take a second look at those "not-so-adoptable" pups at the shelter.

 

News: Karen B. London
Injured on the Trail
Carrying dogs no easy task

I saw Lucy at the running store that her guardians own, bandaged up and limping a bit. She was also enjoying the sympathy of customers and friends, especially if that sympathy came with a side of treats. While chasing a squirrel, Lucy had run into a piece of old barbed wire that had sliced her leg pretty badly.

Following a visit to the emergency veterinarian, treatment involving stitches, bandages, antibiotics and painkillers, and a substantial transfer of funds from the guardians to the vet, Lucy is on the mend. She won’t be running for the next little while, but will instead be on a strict regimen of rest and sleep. She certainly will not be left home alone with the other two dogs in the household to play and damage her bandages or healing leg, which is why she was at work.

Luckily, Lucy will be fine, but there is one piece of the story that really stresses me out, and that’s how far Lucy’s guardian had to carry her from the spot where she was injured to get back to the car. I had asked about this specifically because so many people here in Flagstaff, Ariz. love running on remote trails, especially with their dogs. It was alarming to learn that Lucy had to be carried a mile and a half. This was quite a physical endeavor with a dog weighing over 60 pounds—even for her guardian, who is strong and fit. Some adrenaline from concern about her injury probably gave him a little boost, but it was still a challenge.

Even with internal chemical changes that help us out in emergencies, I shudder to think how hard it would be for most people to carry their injured dogs. Depending on the size of the dog, and the strength of the person, it could range from no big deal to actually impossible. If anyone is ever out stranded with a full grown English Mastiff or a Saint Bernard, the situation could become serious quite quickly, but many of us could run close to full speed with a small terrier.

How far have you had to carry your dog because of an injury? How far could you do that if you had to?

News: Editors
Bhutan’s Innovative Spay-Neuter Solution Hits the Airwaves
Twig Mowatt (left) talks with one of the local vets with dogs that have just been netted.
Bark’s long-time contributing editor Twig Mowatt has been covering humane efforts both here and abroad for nearly two decades. She recently had the chance to visit Bhutan, the country with the enviable “Gross National Happiness Index” to cover a story for us about how the Bhutanese are tackling their stray dog population. Twig just got back from this amazing trip and was approached by PRI’s “The World” (Public Radio International) for an interview with Marco Werman that aired yesterday. We are so proud of her (this was her first radio interview) and thrilled that the Humane Society International received this invaluable promotion. We hope that other countries are inspired by Bhutan’s innovative national effort in spaying and neutering.    Twig’s indepth article on this program and her trip will be featured in our next (Fall) issue. And, yes, there is a dog magazine called The Bark. And we are proud to have Twig as our International Humane Editor!  

Click for a full transcript of the PRI interview and photographs.

News: Editors
Watch Human-Chain Rescue Dog

Amongst the tragic and brutal news of recent days, it is heartening to see acts of kindness and bravery. Helping animals in need sometimes brings out the best in people, whether it is a Sikh man in India using his turban to save a drowning dog or this group of passers-by who worked together to form a human chain to rescue a dog in distress in Kazakhstan. Small events, big hearts—happy endings.

News: Karen B. London
Summer Activities
Adjustments because of the heat

A client just called me to request that we change our appointment this week to early in the morning to beat the record heat expected over the next few days. We have to be mindful of preventing this dog from overheating because one piece of our behavior modification work each week involves having him play fetch with strangers. The goal is to teach him to feel happy when he sees a stranger by associating strangers with the opportunity to play his favorite game. Right now, he still finds unfamiliar people scary, but thanks to many fetch games, his circle of familiar people has grown. There are now quite a few of us who he greets with happy anticipation, knowing that our presence means that a fetch game is in his immediate future.

Every summer, people make adjustments based on the heat, and this is especially true for those who live in hot climates. Sometimes the schedule changes are as simple as walking the dog a little earlier in the morning or a bit later in the evening. In other cases, physical activities are shortened by running or playing fetch for 20 minutes instead of for 45 minutes. There are dogs who have a seasonal rotation of activities based on the weather, so they may swim or walk in the hottest months, even though they go running alongside a bicycle for exercise during the rest of the year.

The most basic ways to modify activities to accommodate the stress of hot weather are to do less vigorous activity, to exercise for shorter periods of time and to be active during the coolest parts of the day. What changes are you making in your schedule so your dog is not exposed to the excessive heat?

News: JoAnna Lou
Dangerous Water Hemlock
Watch out this summer for a common, but deadly plant.
Now that summer is here, and everyone is hanging out by the water, I wanted to share information about a common, but extremely lethal, plant called the water hemlock. It's scary because it's found all over North America and can kill so quickly.

I recently read about a three year old Border Collie who died within one hour of ingesting the toxic plant. The pup was playing at Horsetooth Reservoir in Colorado when she chewed on water hemlock. Shortly after she lost all motor function and succumbed on the way to the veterinarian.

Just a few leaves of the plant can kill a dog within hours, making it one of the most lethal plants on this continent. Some animals have even been poisoned from drinking water that has been contaminated with trampled water hemlock roots! The plant grows near bodies of water, like rivers and lakes, and also where water collects, like ditches.

Water hemlock is a a tall, branching plant that can grow three to six feet. It blooms white flowers in June and July with narrow, serrated leaves. Cow and water parsnip are often confused with water hemlock. All parts of the plant are poisonous, with the roots being the most toxic.

If water hemlock is consumed, symptoms begin within a matter of minutes and include drooling, muscle twitching, seizures, and dilated pupils. This quickly turns into respiratory paralysis and then death. If a non-lethal dose is consumed, there is a chance at recovery, but there may be temporary or permanent damage to the heart or skeletal muscle.

If you see your dog eating water hemlock, try to induce vomiting and get to a veterinarian immediately. However, since the toxin acts so quickly, prevention is really the key. Learn to identify water hemlock and don't let you dog dig and chew wild plants.

News: Karen B. London
Genetic Variation in Scenting Ability
Natural detection task is very revealing

We all know that Beagles have better noses than Whippets, right? This almost seems too obvious to point out, especially to anyone who has ever had a dog of either breed. However, the authors of a recent study claim to be the first to scientifically document a difference in olfactory abilities across groups of dogs.

The researchers compared scenting ability across four groups of canines: dog breeds that have been selected for scenting abilities, dog breeds that have not been selected for scenting abilities, short-nosed dogs and hand-reared wolves. The task asked of these animals was simple—find the raw meat in a container that is hidden underneath one of five pots. There were multiple tests that varied in difficulty based on the number of holes in the container’s lid.

The results of the study were that dogs bred for scenting ability performed better than both short-nosed dogs and dogs who were not bred for their olfactory capabilities. The short-nosed dogs performed worse than any other group, suggesting that breeding for this head and face shape has adversely affected olfaction. In the most difficult of the tests, only wolves and the dogs bred for scenting abilities performed better than what would be expected if the animals were just guessing. Wolves improved their performance when they were re-tested, but the dogs in all three groups were no better the second time around.

Since dogs did not improve with repeated testing, this test may be a useful one-and-done way to assess a dog’s scenting capabilities. That is important because there is currently no standard method for testing the olfactory ability of dogs, but the method in this study could be used for quick assessments of dogs’ abilities. Most ways of testing dogs involve a match-to-sample design, which means that the dogs are taught a scent and they then have to find the same scent from among a group of scents. That requires extensive training, so it is impossible to determine to what degree those tests are assessing trainability and to what extent they measure scenting ability. Both trainability and olfactory ability are important for success as a working detection dog, but there’s great value in evaluating each trait independently.

News: JoAnna Lou
Protecting Dogs in Hot Cars
More states add protections to those aiming to rescue.
























Now that summer is here, the dogs in hot cars problem is cropping up again. Just last week a Texas police officer was charged with cruelty to animals for leaving his Belgian Malinois to die in a hot vehicle. It's a story that is sadly becoming all too common. On the flip side, I've also seen a photo of a sign on a car window asking people not to break in to rescue their pup because the air conditioner and music was on. The good thing is, as awareness has grown, more people are looking out for distressed dogs, and more states are creating protections for these situations.
20 states have laws that permit rescuing pets from parked cars, but all but three limit the protection to specific types of people, such as law enforcement or animal control.

California is currently one of those states that authorizes peace officers, humane officers, and animal control officers to remove an animal in danger from a car. But a new proposed law will extend that protection to all people who rescue pets in this predicament.

The Right to Rescue Act has some stipulations before individuals can just break into anyone's windows without remorse. Rescuers will be required to check whether the car is locked first and have a "good faith belief" that the animal is in danger if they aren't removed immediately. Then they must contact police or animal control before entering the vehicle, and stay until the animal can be surrendered to law enforcement.

Temperatures don't even have to rise that high for cars to become dangerous. When outside temperatures are 70 degrees, the interior of a car can reach 89 degrees in 10 minutes and 99 degrees in 20 minutes.

In preparation for the warmer months, familiarize yourself with your state's laws and with the signs of heat stroke in dogs. It could come in handy when you come across a hot pup! For more information on individual state laws, check out Michigan State University Animal Legal & Historical Center's web site.

News: Karen B. London
Drowning Dog Rescued
Sikh man uses his turban to save him

Breaking a religious taboo may upset many people, but occasionally, it results in near universal respect and praise. That’s true in the case of Sarwan Singh, a 28-year old Sikh man in Punjab, India. His heroic action and willingness to briefly violate an important rule of his religion allowed him to save a life. He removed his turban in public in order to use it as a rope to save a drowning dog from a canal.

Singh, who himself cannot swim, was driving when he saw a group of people pointing at the canal. He stopped his car and quickly took in the situation. A dog was in danger of drowning, but nobody was helping. He says that when he started to remove his turban, people around him were shocked, thinking he was showing great disrespect to his faith. Wearing a turban is an important article of faith in the Sikh religion and the doctrine states that it can only be removed at home or while bathing. He says, “But what was most important at that point was to save the animal’s life.” And that’s exactly what he did.

Singh says that the dog was very frightened, and did not want to come towards him. They moved about 200 meters along the canal before Singh was able to capture the dog with one part of his turban and use the other piece as a rope to keep himself from falling into the canal along with the dog. I cannot understand the language they are speaking, but I can certainly notice the change in tone of the speakers. Before the rescue, everyone is frantic, but afterwards, the great relief and joy is obvious in all the voices.

I appreciate the value placed on religion and the rules that come with each faith. Still, I feel comfortable saying that it’s a beautiful thing to put kindness, humanity and saving a life over guidelines of any sort—even sacred religious ones.

News: Guest Posts
Did Dogs Arise on Opposite Sides of Eurasia?
An international group of scientists proposes dual domestication from wolves.

Among the many hotly debated topics related to the appearance of dogs in the lives of humans is how often and where it first occurred. In their landmark 1997 paper on dog origins, Robert K. Wayne, Carles Vilá, and their colleagues made the case for multiple origins, but many other students of dog evolution, including Peter Savolainen, a co-author on that paper, have repeatedly and strongly argued for a single place of origin.

In this week’s Science magazine (June 3, 2016) [the article is available here, gratis], Laurent Frantz of Oxford University’s ancient dog program, writing for more than a score of his colleagues from institutions around the world, presents the case for dual domestication of Paleolithic wolves in Western Eurasia and Eastern Asia. According to this hypothesis, a now extinct ancestral wolf split into at least two genetically distinct populations on opposite sides of the Eurasian continent where they encountered and joined forces with humans to become dogs.

Frantz and his coauthors pin much of their argument on analysis and comparison of the fully sequenced genome of a 4,800- year old dog unearthed at Newgrange, Ireland, to other ancient and modern dogs and modern wolves. They found it retained “a degree of ancestry” different from modern dogs or modern wolves. Using that and other evidence the researchers argue that the most comprehensive model for the appearance of the dog involves at least two domestication events 15,000 or more years ago. Frantz writes: “The eastern dog population then dispersed westward alongside humans at some point between 6,400 and 14,000 years ago, into Western Europe (10,11, 20), where they partially replaced an indigenous Paleolithic dog population. Our hypothesis reconciles previous studies that have suggested that domestic dogs originated either in East Asia (9, 19) or in Europe (7).”

I asked Greger Larson, co-director of the Oxford project and corresponding author on the paper, just what were the boundaries of “Western Eurasia,” comprised apparently of Europe and the Middle East, and “Eastern Asia?” He answered in an email that the boundaries were left deliberately vague because where wolves became dogs remains unknown, like the date itself.

In Science, Frantz writes: [W]e calculated the divergence time between two modern Russian wolves used in the study and the modern dogs to be 60,000 to 20,000 years ago.” The first number puts the dog in the time when Neanderthal was still the big kid on the European block, raising the possibility that Neanderthal had protodogs or that early modern humans came to Europe with dogs or soon allied with wolves. Either of the first two  prospects must have set off alarms in some circles for Frantz cautions that those dates should not be taken as “a time frame for domestication” because the wolves they used may not have been “closely related to the population(s) that gave rise to dogs.”

Fundamentally, this paper is at once a bold attempt to come up with a workable hypothesis to explain the appearance of the dog in human affairs and a tentative step into troubled waters. Left unanswered are virtually all outstanding questions regarding the who, what, when, where, and why of the transformation of wolves to dogs. Geographically all it does is exclude Central Asia. Whether it does so wrongly may depend on how you define Central  Asia geographically.  

What makes it bold and radical even is the suggestion that early humans and wolves could have gotten together wherever and whenever they met on the trail of the big game they were following.  There are many reasons for that including similar social and familial cultures, but humans and wolves could have joined forces to have become more successful hunters. We learn from Wolves on the Hunt: The Behavior of Wolves Hunting Prey by L. David Mech, Douglas W. Smith, and Daniel R. MacNulty (Chicago, 2016) that while wolves appear excellent at finding and trailing game, they are not very good at making the kill, succeeding perhaps half the time. It is dangerous work at which humans with their weapons excel.

Imagine the scene: Human hunters locate wolves on the hunt by watching ravens who are known to follow them. Human hunters move in for the kill and take as many animals as they can. If smart, they might share immediately with the wolves. If not, the wolves might consume what the humans do not carry off or follow them back to their encampment to take what they can.

The rest is a tale of accommodation through socialization—the ability to bond with another being—and all that entails. 

 

This article originally appeared in Psychology Today's Dog's Best Friend, used with permission.

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