health care
Wellness: Healthy Living
Cracked Paws: Natural Winter Care For Dogs
DIY Paw Wax
Dogs in Snow

Snow falls, cold winds blow. In northern latitudes, winter serves up a host of things for dogs and their people to contend with. Salt and other de-icing agents are hazardous to dogs’ paws and skin throughout the season, and moving from cool air outdoors to warm air indoors can result in dry, irritated skin.

There are several simple things you can do to help your dog deal. To prevent salt from irritating paws, apply a coat of Musher’s Secret paw wax, made from a blend of several food-grade waxes, before heading outside. When your dog comes in, wipe her paws with warm water to remove de-icing agents. (Don’t forget to check her legs and stomach, too.) If your dog has long hair, trim the hair between her pads to prevent painful ice balls from forming. Or, avoid these foot problems altogether by putting booties on your dog—which might be easier said than done.

Increasing indoor humidity will help alleviate dry, itchy skin. A simple oatmeal bath can ease irritated skin, but don’t bathe your dog too often, as this strips natural oils and further contributes to dryness. (Vets suggest a once-a-month bathing schedule.) Regularly grooming your dog with a soft brush like Pet+Me can also help improve her skin by stimulating the oil glands to produce more natural oils.

A number of supplements are considered to be helpful in maintaining a healthy skin and coat. Add Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids (found in fish oil) to your dog’s food (this takes four to nine weeks to have an effect); vitamin E can be taken internally and/or applied topically. A deficiency in vitamin A may also contribute to skin problems; ask your vet about supplementing with vitamin A if the other options aren’t helping.

DIY Paw Wax

Based on a recipe from Frugally Sustainable


Six 1-ounce tins (or about 20 standard lip-balm tubes)

Small pot or double boiler


2 oz. olive, sunflower or sweet almond oil

2 oz. coconut oil

1 oz. shea butter

4 tsp. beeswax

Optional: Essential oils

1. Over low heat, melt the oils, shea butter and beeswax. Stir continuously until everything is melted and well blended.

2. Pour the mixture into tins or tubes. Let cool.

3. Cap and label. Keep away from extreme heat.

News: Editors
Better with Pets Summit
A gathering of ideas

There is an astounding amount of research on dogs—academic studies, medical research, social and psychological testing, not to mention reams of data gathered from our everyday lives. Thoughtfully assimilated, all of this information can help us and our dogs live better lives together.

I was reminded of how fortunate dog enthusiasts are to share in this wealth of information upon my return last week from Purina’s Better with Pets Summit (November 3). The annual event, this year presented in Brooklyn, NY, was a gathering of pet experts sharing their latest findings with the media. The theme for the day was “exploring the best ideas for bringing people and pets closer together.” It was an apt description.

The day started out with an inspired presentation by Dr. Arleigh Reynolds, a veterinarian and research scientist who studies the impact of nutrition on performance on sled dogs. A champion musher himself, Reynolds’ talk focused not on a program he’s involved with in the Alaskan village of Huslia. This small coastal community was the home of George Attla, a famed champion musher and native Athabascan who ruled the sport for thirty years before retiring. In honor of his son Frank, who died at age 21 in 2010, Attla started the Frank Attla Youth and Sled Dog Care Mushing Program. The program serves many purposes—providing skills, lessons in cultural traditions, and a sense of belonging to the youth population while uniting all townspeople around a common activity, mushing. The program, as described warmly by Reynolds and in a short documentary film demonstrates the power that dogs can initiate in our lives.

Next up was a panel discussion titled “Are Millennials Changing Our Relationships with Cats?”—offering the interesting observation that a new generation of cat people have now formed a community on the internet—so as dog people connect at dog parks, cat lovers now interact online sharing their passion for felines. We met Christina Ha, the co-founder of Meow Parlour, New York’s first cat café. Can a canine café be in our future?

The most anticipated panel “Stress, Our Pets, and Us” featured animal behaviorist Ragen McGowan, PhD; architect Heather Lewis (Animal Arts) and Dr. Tony Buffington, professor of veterinary science. McGowan discussed the value of having dogs work for their food citing her studies with grizzlies, chickens and mice on the practice of contrafreeloading (working for food when food is freely available). Lewis’s architectural practice specializes in designing veterinary hospitals and animal care facilities around the country, meeting the unique needs of both workers and animals. It’s evident that good design can have an important impact on animal friendly environments—from soothing color palettes to calming lighting levels or the simple use of horizontal bars (less stress inducing) instead of traditional vertical bars. The key takeaway: Mental exercise for animals might be as important to their well-being as physical exercise.

“Raising Pets and Kids” featured Jayne Vitale of Mutt-i-grees Child Development Director; Ilana Resiner, veterinarian behaviorist; and Charley Bednarsh, Director of Children’s Services (Brooklyn). The Bark features an in-depth article in its Winter 2015 issue on Mutt-i-grees, a program developed by the North Shore Animal League that offers academic and emotional support to students from kindergarten through high school, teaching them how to be ambassadors for the humane treatment of animals. Bednarsh and her therapy dog Paz, team up to assist young witnesses of domestic violence navigate the judicial system (a similar program first reported in The Bark). We were reminded of the important contribution to the health and well-being of the children in these extraordinary programs, and also to common households. Note to self: Don’t humanize your dog—study, understand, embrace their dogness.

The afternoon offered a room full of experiential exhibits—interactive displays that provided lessons in healthy environments, cognition, reading your pet, nutrition and your pet’s purpose. Manned by teams of experts, the well designed displays presented an immersive course in Dog and Cat 101. I’d love to see the exhibits showcased to the general public, those most in need of education and guidance in the proper care of pet companions. The day was rich with ideas and notes that we’ll shape into future articles for The Bark.

Purina’s commitment to offering a forum of ideas is commendable. In a similar vein, the company hosted another notable event on November 7—a free live video cast of the Family Dog Project from Hungary—with over a dozen presentations by leading scientists and animal behaviorist exploring everything from canine cognition to sensory perception in dogs. Like the Pet Summit, it was a fascinating collection of concepts and dialogue, enriching to everybody who participated.

For more check out #BetterWithPets

News: Guest Posts
Cool-weather Tick Alert

My dog and I both enjoy the arrival of autumn. I love the cascade of warm leaf colors, and she particularly loves rooting through the newly dropped leaves, as if there must be a treat hidden in there somewhere. We’re able to take much longer walks, no longer burdened by daytime heat spikes, scorching pavement, or the constant buzz of mosquitoes.

However, this time of year also brings another, less pleasant arrival: adult-stage blacklegged, or deer ticks. Wait a minute! Maybe you thought ticks were only a problem in the spring and summer? Well, they are active then. But blacklegged ticks are also a problem in the autumn. The tiny, poppy seed-sized nymphs that were nearly invisible all summer now have grown into the adult form and seem to be everywhere. These autumn days, when all other bloodsuckers are pretty much gone, adult blacklegged ticks can be found spending their days at the tops of tall grasses and low shrubs, legs outstretched, and waiting for a potential host to brush by.

The females are particularly dangerous to you as well as your pup. It’s currently estimated that around 50 percent of female blacklegged ticks are infected with the Lyme disease bacteria in the New England, mid-Atlantic and Upper Midwestern states, and the likelihood of transmission and infection increases the longer she’s attached and feeding. A lower proportion (about 15 percent) of these same ticks are infected in the southeastern and south-central states. And don’t be surprised if you see what looks like two types of tick on you or your pet. The all-black tick you may see is a male, usually just crawling around. He’s not interested in feeding (he’s only looking for the ladies). In addition to the Lyme disease bacteria, blacklegged ticks are also known carriers of the agent that causes canine anaplasmosis, another nasty pathogen that causes lethargy, lameness and fever in dogs.

While ticks pose a serious risk to you and your dog, they are no reason to hide indoors. A little TickSmart planning can help keep you TickSafe as you enjoy the beautiful fall weather.

Top 5 TickSmart™ Actions to Protect your Dog from Deer Ticks

•Avoid edges where ticks lie in wait.
Walk in the middle of trails, and stay on paved walkways away from the grassy vegetation where ticks are questing.

•Perform daily tick checks on your dog.
Spend time grooming your dog after every outing to remove any ticks that may have latched on. If any attached, be sure to use pointy tweezers for removal. Report any ticks found to TickEncounter’s TickSpotters program.

•Protect your dog with a quick tick-knockdown product.
There are many preventatives out there, and your dog should be protected every month of the year. Check out a comparison to determine which one is right for you.

•Make sure your dog’s Lyme vaccine is up-to-date.
The vaccine is a helpful component in the fight to protect your dog in case of a bite from a Lyme-infected deer tick (it should be noted that it doesn’t confer 100 percent immunity). Consult your vet for the proper formulation to protect your pet all year.

•Create a tick-free yard.
Spraying the yard and then containing your dogs to the yard to prevent them from wandering into tick territory is a great way to protect them from tick bites and your home from loose and wandering ticks that could end up biting you.


Wellness: Health Care
In-Home Vet Care
Senior dogs benefit from in-home vet care.

When I was in veterinary school, a house-call practice was far from the career I imagined. Yet years later, I found myself at a crossroads. I knew I wanted to work for myself, but the thought of opening my own vet hospital was daunting. So, I compromised, taking part-time jobs while building my in-home practice. Word spread, and within six months, I was able to focus entirely on veterinary house calls.

Though my practice was designed to offer full-service veterinary care to dogs and cats in all stages of life, it soon became clear that senior pets benefited the most. Elderly arthritic dogs with mobility issues are difficult to get into a car, and diabetic dogs with cataracts can become disoriented and anxious in a waiting area filled with young, active and noisy pets. Even routine vet-clinic check-ups can be distressing for old dogs.

In-home care guarantees a relaxed, familiar setting conducive to in-depth examination. And when dogs are at the very end of their lives, quality-of-life assessments, palliative and hospice care, and euthanasia are all most comfortably done at home. Two years ago, when I introduced Your Senior Pet’s Vet, a subdivision of my general house call practice, the response was overwhelmingly positive.

House calls for seniors don’t have to wait until dogs are in the last stages of a terminal illness. Most of the issues that arise with older animals can be addressed in the home, and when radiographs or surgery are necessary, the dog can be transported to a base animal hospital for tests and treatment. My senior house-call patients tend to tolerate less-frequent hospital care with ease, possibly because they have been conditioned to consider me a friend from home.

My clients are also much happier with this type of personalized service. Like their elderly dogs and cats, people also experience increased stress associated with vet-clinic visits. Taking the car ride, waiting-room delays and steel exam tables out of the equation is a great relief. Additionally, home visits make it possible for owners to evaluate my caregiving style on a more intimate basis than is possible with a quick hospital visit, resulting in a higher degree of trust and comfort when it comes to my treatment of their special pets.

Katie and Poppet, 13-year-old Jack Russells, lived with Patsy, who was in her early 80s at the time. She and her two terriers walked a couple of miles to the beach and around the golf course every day. I made my first visit in response to a handwritten letter Patsy left in my mailbox requesting a house-call appointment for Katie and Poppet’s routine check-ups. This was also the start of a wonderful friendship; Patsy gave me parenting advice and told me stories of her years as a nurse and a law student, and of past dogs in her life.

Eventually, Katie developed congestive heart failure that required medication and regular rechecks. Poppet survived a serious case of leptospirosis, but ultimately slid into canine cognitive disorder. After Patsy had lost both dogs, I helped her adopt a new senior Pomeranian from the local shelter. Billy moved in, and I continued to be Patsy’s on-call vet.

I share this story as an example of the benefits of in-home vet care for senior dogs such as Katie and Poppet. Whether the issue is simple old age or a chronic, debilitating problem, an objective professional evaluation and consult can make it possible for a dog to continue to live comfortably at home. Sometimes, people are sure it’s time to let their dog go, but in many cases, I am able to alleviate their worries and help them find ways to keep their dogs with them longer than they thought was possible. As dogs and cats transition into the final phase of their lives, in-home visits coupled with pain-management therapies, changes in treatment protocols and environmental accommodations (ramps, carpeting on slippery floors, support harnesses and slings) can make all the difference.

When I met Rocky, a 13-year-old, 75-pound Pit Bull mix, his family was very upset. Not only was he incapacitated by severe arthritis, he also had a large mass at the base of his tail and had been diagnosed with Cushing’s disease. Because his family couldn’t get him into the car, Rocky had not been to his regular vet in over a year. When I first saw him, he was lying on a piece of carpet surrounded by small sample-sized carpet squares, panting and wagging his tail as three adorable small children doted on him, petting him and offering him water. The children were interested in the equipment in my house-call box and asked questions about what I was doing with Rocky. The parents and grandparents waited anxiously to hear what I had to say about their amazing old boy.

The mass was large and open, and Rocky’s nails were very long. After reviewing all aspects of Rocky’s situation, we made a plan to treat the infected mass with antibiotics, cut his toenails so he would have an easier time with foot placement, and cover the slippery wood floor with larger carpeting and runners. We also started conservative but effective pain-management medications. We discussed harnesses and slings that would make it easier and more ergonomic to get Rocky from place to place within the house and yard.

He was a cooperative, friendly patient, and I was able to draw blood for the necessary full senior dog panel before putting him on anti-inflammatory medications. Rocky’s response to these interventions was remarkable. His family was delighted at his increased comfort and improved ability to get up and down, and they had a much easier time caring for him.

Eventually, his arthritis worsened, the mass grew and his overall quality of life deteriorated. We met a number of times after our initial visit, and had many email and phone conversations. Over a period of about eight months, I was able to guide them smoothly through their transition to saying good-bye to their sweet Rocky. When the decision was made to let him go peacefully, Rocky left this life on his bed, in his own home, surrounded by his loving family,

In-home euthanasia is a gift to beloved old animals and to their families as well; it makes the final goodbye comfortable and natural. Take Petey, for instance. To a man and his three daughters, the 16-year-old Bichon was not only a cherished companion, he was also a living link to the wife and mother they had lost to cancer nine years earlier. However, Petey’s quality of life had diminished to the point that he couldn’t eat and was vomiting and in pain. It was clear to the family that it was time to let him go, but they were distraught and having a very hard time with the process.

We discussed keeping the focus on what was best for Petey; what an important, special friend he was; and that they would always have pictures and beautiful memories to keep him with them. We set a time for in-home euthanasia, and when the day came, the weather was perfect. We were able to go outside to a beautiful grassy area in their back yard. After a very long goodbye, I euthanized Petey. The family agreed that I should make ink paw prints and clip some hair for them to keep. For this family, being together in the privacy of their back yard was the only way this could have been done.

Whether for routine, palliative or end-of-life care, senior dogs and cats benefit from in-home veterinary visits—compassionate support in the most comfortable environment they know. When I was searching for my niche within the veterinary profession at the beginning of my career, I never would have guessed how rewarding house calls and senior pet care could be. It has been profoundly gratifying to see the difference it makes in the lives of so many animals and their owners.

Wellness: Healthy Living
Dog CPR Classes at Home

Online courses are all the rage. Here’s one from Udemy that caught our interest: Dog CPR, First Aid & Safety. Taught by Melanie Monteiro, author of The Safe Dog Handbook and a canine CPR and first-aid expert. Monteiro offers workshops and private consults in California and Oregon, and now, you can learn from her in the comfort of your own home. There are 36 lectures (three hours of video), covering pet CPR, canine Heimlich, how to stock a first-aid kit, how to take and read vital signs and more. Important techniques like how best to approach and capture an injured dog and restrain her for treatment, and how, why and when to use a muzzle (or not) are covered, using real dogs as subjects. Also included are tips on puppy-proofing your home as well as special pointers for dog walkers, sitters and pet-care providers. At only $60, it’s a great value. Learn more at udemy.com.

Wellness: Health Care
Breakthrough For Severe Canine Dysplasia
Would this breakthrough procedure improve a young Lab’s severe dysplasia?

Montilius (Monty) Tiberius is our two-year-old yellow Labrador best friend and faithful companion. On March 12, 2015, he became just the 15th dog in the world to undergo a groundbreaking procedure that, we hoped, would reduce his severe bilateral hip dysplasia and give him a chance at a normal life.

How difficult was the procedure? “On a scale of one to 10, the operation was a 12,” said veterinary orthopedic surgeon Dr. Loïc Déjardin of Michigan State University Veterinary Medical Center in East Lansing, who performed it. Dr. Déjardin is regarded as one of three surgeons worldwide able to execute this delicate operation.

The surgery on Monty’s right hip took nearly four hours. “There were some difficult areas through the surgery, finding just the right depth and shaving some bone away so Monty can access total mobility. Now, we wait and see,” Dr. Déjardin told us afterward. Monty would be closely monitored at six-week intervals for six months post-op.

Taking it slowly was key to Monty’s healing process. As Dr. Déjardin pointed out, “It’s up to you to make sure Monty heals properly, and having him take it easy is important.” My wife Ann and I took his advice seriously. For the next 10 weeks, Monty went outside on a leash to “get busy” as often as necessary; otherwise, he stayed in and rested. During the first four weeks in particular, we handled Monty oh-so-carefully, and our other dogs were kept away so they wouldn’t jump on or play with him.


A New System

Dr. Déjardin had given Monty a Centerline BFX Prosthesis. This trademarked prosthetic biologic fixation “hip system,” created by BioMedtrix Company of Boonton Township, N.J., uses an implant that is approximately eight inches long and made of steel (picture a skinny, steel ice cream cone with a scoop on top).

Unlike standard canine hip replacement implants, which are inserted down the central axis of the femur itself, the Centerline-BFX is hammered into the center of the femur neck; its base protrudes from the bone, allowing it to be secured at the top, attached without being cemented into the pelvis. It’s described as a lever (femur) and fulcrum. In order for Monty to regain complete range of motion, the prosthesis had to be inserted in exactly in the right spot, which required shaving off bone in the pelvic region.

This prosthesis and the procedure required to insert it are so new that they have not yet been fully documented in medical journals. Veterinarians with patients who are candidates for such a procedure would certainly review and study Monty’s case. Particularly if the operation was completely successful, which wasn’t a given.


No Guarantees

What made Monty’s individual case special was the fact that he had severe dysplasia in both hips. The femoral head (the “ball” of the ball-and-socket joint) and pelvis area were seriously deteriorated, and he was almost completely lacking a hip socket (the acetabulum).

Before the surgery, when Monty walked, his left back leg dangled and flapped; when he ran, it was as if both hind legs vibrated. On his right side, his leg moved in an awkward semi-circle, like a leaf dangling from a branch. The right hip had the severest degree of lameness and, we were told, made Monty an excellent candidate for the procedure.

The regular prosthesis used for canine hip replacement wouldn’t work for Monty. Rather, in time, it would render him totally lame. During our initial September 2014 consultation with Dr. Déjardin, he explained Monty’s rare condition. He also made it clear that there was no guarantee of complete success. The specialized prosthetic implant would need to be precisely angled into the bone and secured around muscles that had already formed, which was risky. Additionally, the depth of the implant couldn’t be known until the actual surgery, another risk factor.

Before the surgery, Proto-Med Company in Colorado made 3D models of Monty’s hip (pelvis) and femur from CT scans. Dr. Déjardin practiced on the models, rehearsing the surgery to reduce the margin of error.


A Setback

In weeks five to eight after his surgery, Monty was walking very short distances, which we were told was appropriate in order for him to begin strengthening the muscles in his right leg. But during week nine, something seemed to be amiss. One morning, he was fine when he went outside to get busy, but in the afternoon, when it was time for his short walk up and down the driveway, I noticed that he was seriously limping on his right hind leg. When Ann came home from work, I told her about it. She asked me if he’d done anything unusual, and I made what I thought was a joke: I said he ran around the neighborhood and seemed fantastic, which nearly put me outside in our decorated antique doghouse. In reality, I took this development very seriously, and myriad “what-ifs” raced through my mind.

I immediately made an appointment with Monty’s veterinarian, Dr. Thomas Frankmann, at the Animal Clinic of Chardon, who took X-rays. “It’s not good,” were Dr. Frankmann’s first words after he looked at them. “The Centerline implant has completely moved out of the pre-made socket [acetabulum] and is rubbing against bone. This, I suspect, is causing the limp and some discomfort.”

Dr. Frankmann said that he’d never had seen anything like it. “It’s not supposed to do that—these implants are secure. It’s bewildering.”

Dr. Frankmann called Dr. Déjardin for a consultation. Over the next few days, Dr. Déjardin spoke only to Dr. Frankmann. He also scheduled Monty for emergency surgery at MSU to reattach his implant. Needless to say, Ann and I were both sick with worry. We didn’t know what to expect or what would happen to Monty—would he be permanently disabled, or worse, would he even survive another operation?

We never did find out what might have caused this problem. Prior to Monty’s surgery, we heard only from the MSU nursing assistants and Dr. Frankmann, who detailed the severity and risk of the reattachment; Monty’s decaying bone structure and pelvic deterioration raised a concern that the repositioned prosthesis might not hold.

After the nearly eight-hour surgery Dr. Déjardin finally spoke with us directly. As it turned out, he could not save the implant; as Dr. Frankmann warned, it could not be readjusted or replaced. He immediately began a second operation while Monty was still sedated, performing an FHO (femoral head ostectomy), removing the head and neck of the femur to alleviate pain. The FHO is  a salvage procedure intended to prevent total incapacitation; it basically allows Monty’s femur to “float” unattached, supported only by scar tissue that creates a false joint. Through physical therapy, he would build up muscle that would help secure the bone somewhat in place.

Two days later, during the five-hour drive to pick up Monty at MSU, I envisioned his feeble body after his first surgery two months prior and reflected on the pain he had endured. I also thought about how many pills he would now need to take; he was up to five medications at one point.

Upon seeing me, Monty couldn’t restrain himself. He tried to jump up but couldn’t because of the weakness in his right leg. He had been shaved, again of course, and seeing him was disheartening. I decided that the operations were finally over; no matter what miraculous cure/invention/procedure was discovered, I would not subject Monty to any more.


Then and Now

Monty has traveled a difficult path to get where he is today. He was diagnosed with “hip problems” as a puppy, but the severity of his condition wasn’t seriously investigated until shortly before he was a year old. Discarded and abused, he had at least three different owners before I adopted him from Joanne Dixon, president of Providing for Paws of Garden City, Mich., a nonprofit rescue organization helping animals in need. Patrons of PFP raised nearly $6,000 during the year leading up to Monty’s first surgery to help with its cost.

We received other financial help as well. Dr. Déjardin waived some of the charges associated with the first operation, and suggested Monty for MSU Veterinary Hospital’s Lucky Fund, which provides resources for specialized cases of dogs in need. The Lucky Fund donated $1,000 toward Monty’s cause.

Nonetheless, next to our home, Monty is our biggest investment, albeit a loving one, and well worth the sacrifice.

As he neared the completion of his weekly physical therapy sessions at Pawsitive Results Animal Rehab Center in Auburn Township, Ohio, his rehab vet, Kathy Topham, was absolutely astounded by Monty’s recovery and his ability to walk almost normally. “He probably won’t be great for search and rescue, but he’ll run, play, jump and maybe make a great therapy dog,” she said.

During our summer beach trip to North Carolina, Monty walked, jogged, swam and was eager to greet every beach-goer who meandered within petting distance. He has a marvelous outlook on life. As Ann said at one point, “He really has made adjustments to compensate for all his ailments; it’s amazing to witness how he moves around.” Monty plays like a normal, healthy, juvenile dog but close observation reveals his physical idiosyncrasies, the split-second adjustments he makes when he walks, runs, squats and lies down.  

Monty has changed my outlook on life. We have that dog-human telepathy that most dog people have with their companion animals. However, he’s also “training” me to meet his needs, for which I couldn’t be more grateful.

Humans are ambivalent about life, but dogs are not. Our canine companions befriend us for our greater happiness, making us better people. They elevate our quality of life (teaching us to wag more and bark less, as the saying goes), and love us unconditionally without regard to the situation they’re dealt.

 As Ann observed, he follows me everywhere, and watches and waits for me constantly. Now, she says, I owe Monty. I wouldn’t have it any other way. He’s the faithful companion every dog owner dreams about, and that’s my good fortune in this life.

Culture: Readers Write
Best Friends Need Best Care
From top-left: Kayla Colandrea plays with Stella; The full Pause4Paws team includes Mia Scarcella, Rida Muneer, Kayla Colandrea, Janine Jao, and Nicole Perilli; Stella, a Pomeranian Papillon; Mia Scarcella and Stella

Every day pets are exposed to various temperature levels from heat to cold, and while it is easy to forget, you really need to consider just how much your pets can be affected in extreme conditions. That’s where we come into play.

We are Pause4Paws, the voice for pets who cannot speak up for themselves. Pause4Paws is a group of sophomore Community Problem Solvers from Flagler Palm Coast High School, Florida. Community Problem Solvers (CmPS), is one of the four competitive components of Future Problem Solving Program, International (FPSPI). FPSPI is meant to stimulate critical and creative thinking skills, encourage students to develop a vision for the future, and to prepare students for leadership skills. In CmPS specifically, we identify real problems in the community, then create and implement real solutions. We all share a strong passion for pets. As Pause4Paws, our mission is to increase familiarity of the dangers associated with climate for household animals so that a healthy lifestyle for them isn’t compromised. 

Because we live in Florida, our group knows all too well about how hot it can get. We are called the Sunshine State for a reason—our sunny weather and high temperatures. Occasionally, the heat can be too much for us, and it’s just too hot to stay outside. This does not just apply to humans, but also to our furry friends.

Regardless of where you live and what your weather conditions may be like, a pet still has the possibility of overheating in a matter of minutes. When left in extreme heat, a pet’s body temperature can reach 109 degrees, to the point where it can no longer cool itself to accommodate the heat, a term called hyperthermia. A heat stroke commonly follows elevated body temperatures. Upon reaching these conditions, the pet’s health may begin to take a dramatic turn towards organ failure, damage to the pet’s brain, heart, liver, nervous system, and in extreme cases, death.  

By taking a few precautions before spending the day with your pet in the sun, you can decrease the likelihood of your pet from getting injured.

  • According to Dr. Alexis Bogosian, one of our local veterinarians, it is best to avoid the sun during its strongest period, which is around 10 am to 3 pm. Always check the ground before you walk your pet on concrete or pavement. On an 85 degree day, the ground can reach a whopping 135 degrees, that is more than enough to cook an egg in minutes! Leaving your pet to walk on the hot floors can leave them with second degree burns. Try and hold your hand on the ground for at least five seconds. If it is too hot for your hand, it is too hot for your pet’s paws!
  • Pets with short, thin and/or light colored hair should be kept away from direct sunlight as they are more susceptible to damaging UV rays. According to Dr. Terri Rosado, DVM or veterinary physician, from Flagler Integrative Veterinary, pets mainly get skin damage where there is little to no hair, such as their belly or noses.
  • There are pet-safe sunblocks available for pets who enjoy sunbathing or are at potential risk of sun damage. Dr. Jacklyn Mantz from Flagler Animal Hospital advises that when choosing sunblock for your pet, make sure that it is fragrance free and has UVA and UVB (SPF 15-30 in humans). Also, when selecting a sunscreen make sure it is specifically for dogs—pets may lick off the sunscreen which can cause toxicity issues.
  • When going on a trip with your dog, never leave them in your car for any periods of time. All it takes is ten minutes on a ninety-degree day for a car to heat up to 109 degrees. Even with the windows down, a car can still potentially reach up to 160 degrees. Just this year, more than twelve police dogs have died after being left in a hot car for an extended amount of time, which resulted in a felony.
  • Most importantly, always make sure that your pet has plenty of water throughout the day!

With winter approaching quickly, we can’t forget our friends in states that aren’t as sunny as Florida! While it may be enjoyable to play with your pet in the snow and cold, you need to know what actions to take to keep your pets warm.

  • Stacey Arnold, a veterinary technician from Pet Street Veterinary Care Center, states that depending on the breed of the dog, tolerance for the cold will vary. You should be aware of their extent and adjust accordingly. Check their paws frequently for any injury or damage, such as cracked paw pads or bleeding. Factors, such as your pet’s coat, their body fat storage, activity levels and health all affect their capability of being in the cold for long periods of time. While your pet’s average temperature stays at around 100-102 degrees, a pet’s temperature, with hypothermia, can drop around ten degrees. Hypothermia can cause low pulse, unconsciousness, frostbite, muscle stiffness, lethargy, comas, organ failure, and in some cases, death.
  • Before it gets too cold, try and take your pet to the veterinary clinic for a checkup. Some conditions, like arthritis, can worsen as the weather gets colder. Young, old and dogs with certain medical problems will have a harder time regulating their own body temperature.
  • Like in the warmer season, never leave your pet outside for long periods of time. Make sure that your pet is in a safe environment before going to bed. They need to be comfortable and kept warm throughout the night. If necessary, there are accessories available for your pet to wear to stay comfortable throughout the winter season. Items such as boots and warm clothing are available at your local pet store.
  • A really great tip during the cool season is to check the bottom of your pet’s paws for ice, rocks, salt, and antifreeze. If you happen to detect any, immediately use a cloth dampened with warm water to remove the substances. These have a tendency to get stuck between the pet’s paws. The ice has the potential to accumulate between the pet's toes, causing extreme pain and discomfort. The first signs to look out for is your dog will be in a disoriented and groggy state, which the symptoms can begin to be recognizable after 30 minutes. If left untreated, this will then transition into the second phase of antifreeze poisoning; vomiting, oral and gastric ulcers, kidney failure, or death.
  • If you think your dog is suffering from hypothermia, take them to a veterinary clinic or hospital as soon as possible!

As you can see, pets are at risk of danger during the hot and cold seasons. Considering that pets are a part of your family, you need to make sure they stay as happy and healthy as possible. It’s up to you as an individual to take a stand for your pets. After all, they rely on you heavily. You feed them, wash them, love them, and care for them. It’s all up to you! They deserve the best care available to them, just like Pause4Paws’ slogan says, “Best friends need best care.”

News: Editors
Who Can Give a Dog a Massage?

It may take more skill than a belly rub, but should massage only be allowed with veterinary supervision? California is the latest state to propose regulating the field of animal rehabilitation, and it could put many kinds of practitioners out of work.

With preventive health care booming, the state’s veterinary board wants to rein in non-veterinary businesses that cater to wellness, saying they “pose a grave danger” to pets and can increase costs for owners. The rule would mean only veterinarians, or physical therapists and registered vet techs, if supervised, could perform animal rehabilitation..

Opponents of the rule say the board has defined the field so broadly, it nets the use of electricity or biofeedback right along with exercise and simple massage used to soothe aching seniors, relax dogs that play sports, and socialize shelter pups.

“It is about defining everything as rehab, even swim facilities and pet certified fitness training,” says Linda Lyman, who attended a recent public hearing in Sacramento to air her concerns. Lyman says she has a PhD in physical education, has taken a canine medical massage course, and for seven years has operated Pawssage, a canine massage practice.

 “I go to agility trials every weekend and massage dogs before, between, and after they run. My goal is always to make sure my client’s dogs can hike, walk, and do things with their owners while and when they quit agility.”

As the board’s proposal would have it, Lyman is practicing veterinary medicine without a license. Aside from the hands-on, she makes suggestions that could get her in trouble under the new law. At her recommendation, three clients bought pools for their dogs, for example.

In many states, a background like Lyman’s isn’t needed. Anyone can provide animal massage, including evaluation, treatment, instruction, and consultation. That currently includes California, where only “musculoskeletal manipulation” by the layperson is forbid. Other states call for direct veterinary supervision of the work, or allow it with a vet’s referral. Some require certification, like the state of Washington, where a 300-hour training course in general animal massage, first aid and more is needed.

Whether body workers massage humans, which calls for state licensing but not doctor supervision, or pets, “the good ones survive and thrive and the rest fall by the wayside, certification or not,” Lyman says.

In a few cases, lawsuits have accused vet boards that restrict massage of stifling competition. In Maryland, providers of horse massage successfully challenged the state vet board, and a recent Arizona lawsuit argues that massage is not a veterinary service.

Another meeting will be held on October 20-21, when the board will discuss comments received so far, and possibly vote on the final rule.

Lyman sees more at stake than massage, or any one service, she says. “This is about a pet’s access to all practitioners who can help it maintain a healthy lifestyle.”

News: Editors
The Case of the Missing Toothpaste
Plus brushing tips


We’ve been hearing from a few readers about why one of the most popular dog toothpastes on the market, seems to have vanished off the shelves, they were hoping we could dig into the cause. Its popularity is such that there have even been reports about one tube of it being offered on e-Bay for $75! We did a quick search at our local stores, thinking perhaps this scarcity was limited to other parts of the country, but our sources were right, there is no C.E.T. to be found anywhere. With ingredients that include glucose oxidase, lactoperoxidase, sorbitol, dicalcium phosphate anhydrous, hydrated silica, glycerine, poultry digest, dextrose, xanthan gum, titanium dioxide, sodium benzoate, potassium thiocyanate, it would be hard to think there could be shortages in any of those substances.

We just got off the phone with a spokesperson from Virbac, the maker of this elusive C.E.T Enzymatic Dog & Cat toothpaste, and he said that this product, along with a few of their others, were undergoing a quality production upgrade, and they started to make it again back in July but it takes a long time to get back into the distribution chain, and will be back on the market within 60 days!

Hopefully for those of you who ran out of C.E.T. you will be using an alternative until that time. But here are some facts to underscore how important tooth brushing can be:

  • Roughly 80 percent of all dogs over the age of three have some degree of dental disease.
  • Dogs’ teeth are awash in bacteria-rich plaque, which, when combined with minerals in the saliva, hardens into tartar (or calculus) that traps even more bacteria. Left unattended, your dog’s gums can become inflamed, resulting in gingivitis and ultimately, periodontal disease.
  • Oral bacteria can enter your dog’s bloodstream and cause damage to her heart, liver, kidneys and lungs.
  • Most plaque buildup occurs on the cheek side of your dog’s teeth, so when brushing, concentrate your efforts there. And you need to be quick—most dogs have limited patience with this kind of personal-hygiene exercise.
  • Contrary to what some dog food manufacturers promote, dry kibble is not better for the teeth; it does not “chip off tartar” and can actually contribute to tartar production by sticking to the teeth.
  • When used with supervision, raw bones, special chews, dental bones and toys, and other healthy products that work by scraping off plaque (but not tartar) can also help, although they shouldn’t be relied upon to do the whole job.

If you are new to brushing your dog’s teeth, keep in mind that with patience and a few positive techniques, you can help your dog be more cooperative. Or as Barbara Royal, DVM  told us “If your pet won’t tolerate a toothbrush, wrap a piece of gauze around your finger, then dip it in some flavored dog toothpaste (not human toothpaste—it can be toxic!) or a paste of baking soda and water.” Also check out The American Veterinary Medical Association has an excellent instructional video, see below.

News: Editors
Health Basics: Canine Seizures

For years, I kept a supply of phenobarbital on hand, prescribed by my vet for my mixed-breed dog's seizure. It turned out to be a one-time thing, and eventually, I disposed of the drug. But I can testify that watching her in the grip of it was both scary and confusing.

As dog-lovers, most of us hope we're never faced with a number of canine health conditions. Seizures fall into that category. When they happen, however, it's helpful to understand what we're looking at and what we need to do next.

Seizures, which are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, can indicate a variety of conditions, some transitory, some longer-lasting. Our old friend "idiopathic" --or, of unknown origin--also comes into play more than either we or our vets would like. 

As explained on the Texas A&M newswire, "For some dogs, a seizure is a one-time experience, but in most cases seizures reoccur. An underlying problem in the brain could be responsible for reoccurring seizures, often resulting in a diagnosis of epilepsy. Between the many causes of seizures in dogs and the often normal lab results, idiopathic epilepsy proves to be a frequent diagnosis." Other causes include toxin ingestion, tumors, stroke, or another of several related neurological disorders.

Dr. Joseph Mankin, clinical assistant professor at the Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, describes a typical seizure. “The dog may become agitated or disoriented, and then may collapse on its side. It may exhibit signs of paddling, vocalization, and may lose bladder control. The seizure may last for a few seconds up to a few minutes, and often the dog will be disoriented or anxious afterward. Occasionally, a dog may be blind for a short period of time.”

When a dog is in the grip of a seizure, there's little we can do, other than to keep our hands away from his or her mouth. Afterward, the most important thing we can do is take the pup to the vet for investigation into the cause. Fortunately, a number of treatments, ranging from allopathic (Western medicine) to complementary (including acupunture) exist.

Like most things, especially those related to health, knowing what we're dealing with is half the battle.

For more on this topic, read Dr. Sophia Yin's excellent overview.