Alert: Sago Palm Toxicity in Dogs

This plant and its seeds are toxic to pets!
By Shea Cox DVM, CVPP, CHPV, May 2012
sago palm and dogs

One of the highlights of my weekend was the successful treatment of an adorable puppy named Leeloo. After being hospitalized for nearly 72 hours, she thankfully fell into the percentage of dogs who survive the ingestion of this highly toxic plant: the sago palm. These plants are highly toxic to dogs and pet owners need to be aware.

What are Sago Palms?

Sago palms are very popular indoor and outdoor plants sold in big box stores. Sago Palms are not actually palms at all; they just look like one. The sago palm is a part of the cycad seed plant family and contains the toxin cycasin. Pet owners should watch out because even very young sago palms are toxic enough to cause death in dogs. Contrary to popular belief, all parts of both male and female plants are toxic, with the seeds being the most lethal component of the sago palm.

Sago Palms are also known as Coontie Palm, Cardboard Palm, Kind Sago, Japanese Sago Palm, Zamias and even unmarked.

The reddish-orange seeds are round to oblong in shape and can be a little bigger than a golf ball in mature plants. Unfortunately, many dogs seem to enjoy chewing on these bitter seeds, which leads to toxicity.

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sago palm toxicity in dogssago palm toxic seeds

Like Leeloo’s family, many people are unaware that the plant is deadly to pets. I’ve even heard talk of people throwing the seeds like a ball for their dog, completely unaware of the deadly dangers! And even if they have heard of the toxic effects, they don’t realize that the plant they are purchasing is actually a sago palm! Why is this?

The plants are becoming increasingly popular in all areas of the country in commercial and residential landscaping, and are often sold as unmarked potted plants in stores such as Target and Home Depot. They are simply labeled as a “palm tree,” without any warning label, and people are not aware that they are bringing home a potentially lethal plant.

Over the past five years, the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center has seen an increase in sago palm toxicities by 200 percent, and according to their data, 50 to 75 percent of cases result in the death of the pet. This number includes pets that are euthanized due to the cost of care; on a slightly brighter note, 68 percent of those pets that are treated early are reported to survive.

Symptoms of Sago Palm Poisoning: drooling, vomiting, diarrhea, depression, lack of appetite, lethargy, ataxia, seizures, tremors and liver failure.

Treating Sago Palm Toxicity

It is important to seek veterinarian treatment as soon as possible as early treatment saves lives. Dogs who have ingested any part of the sago palm plant begin vomiting as early as 15 minutes and may take up to a couple hours after ingestion. Vomiting can be accompanied by diarrhea, depression, and lack of appetite. Liver failure generally occurs within 24-36 hours following ingestion, and in most cases, intensive treatment is necessary.

If it has been 4-6 hours since your dog ingested sago palm, your veterinarian will attempt to induce vomiting, as well as give your dog charcoal to help absorb the toxin. Intravenous fluids for 72 hours, medications to help support liver function, and possibly the transfusion of blood products are needed. Frequent monitoring of liver values will help to determine if your pet will survive the exposure.

Leeloo was a lucky survivor and we were able to keep her from going into liver failure with early and intensive treatment.

Sadly, there was a case a couple of months ago that involved one of our police dogs, and he did not survive. The officer had a sago palm in his yard for 5 years, unaware of the danger, and his canine partner decided to chew on a seed even after ignoring the sago palm prior to that.

So please, if you share your home or yard with a sago palm, now is the time to dig it up and dump it in the garbage. Make sure you are disposing of it in your “actual” garbage, and not your compost or yard waste bin, as these contents are often mulched and repurposed, putting the palm back into the environment where other pets can be exposed. See our list of 12 common house plants that are toxic to dogs for other plants to watch out for.

If you believe that a pet may have eaten any part of a sago palm, please seek veterinary care immediately!

Puppy photo by Helena Lopes / Pexels; Sago Palm photo by Tatters / Flickr

Dr. Shea Cox is the founder of BluePearl Pet Hospice and is a global leader in animal hospice and palliative care. With a focus on technology, innovation and education, her efforts are changing the end-of-life landscape in veterinary medicine.